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LOGIC:The Fallacy Detective
Terms in this set (35)
whenever we introduce something irrelevent into an argument.
not a red herring
when someone says, "I dont know" and doesnt answer the question. He is still addressing the topic, he just doesnt know the answer.
when someone usues a double standard tor argues for an unjustified exception.
ad hominem attack
when someone attackes an opponent's character or his motives for believing something instead of disproving his argument.
when condemning an argument because of where it began. how it began. or who started it
when dismissing someones viewpoint on an issue because he himself is inconsistant in that very thing
faulty appeal to authority
an appeal to someone who has no special knowlage in the area being discussed.
appeal to the people
when we claim that our viewpoint is correct because many other people agree with it.
changing or exaggerating oan opponent's position to make it easier to refute.
something taken for granted or accetped as true without proof.
an argument which says "P" is true because "Q" is true,a nd "Q" is true because "P" is true.
changes the meaning of a word in the middle of an argument.
when someone asks you a question, but ons is hidden behind the other.
assumes that if we take one step, nothing will stop us from taking a series of steps because each step is the same.
part to whole
when someone says what is true of a part of something must also be true of the whole thing together.
whole to part
when someone says that what is true of something os a whole must also be true of each of its parts.
when someone asserts that we must choose between two things, when in fact we have more than two alternatives.
broad comments about a group of people or kind or things.
strong and weak generalizations.
are either strong or weak.
simplifying about a class based upon a small or a poor sample.
claims that some items with only minor similarities are the same in almost everything else.
reasoning by analogy
when we compare two or more items with each other. We notices that these items are the same in one or more ways and conclude that they will be the same in other ways also.
if the differences between the items being compared are major and the similarities minor.
post hoc ergo hoc
concluding that since "A" happend before "B." "B" must have caused "A."
Proof by lack of evidence
claiming if something is true because nobody has yet given any evidence to the contrary.
is a strategy for spreading our beliefs or ideas
appeal to fear
when someone makes you fear the consequences of not doing what he wants.
appeal to pity.
when soemone tries to make us do something only because we pity him or we pity something associated with hime.
when advertisments and articles encourage us to "join millions"
when nothing more that a time lilmit is given as a reason for us to do what someone wants.
repeating a message loutly and very ofter int he hope that we will believe it.
getting us the move our good feelings about one thing to another unrelated thing.
when someone tries to persuade us to think his product would make us stand out from everyone else.
appeal to tradition
when someone ancourages us to buy some product or to take some action becuase it is associated with the past.
appeal to hi-tech
we are encouraged to buy something because it is the "latest thing," not necessarily because it is the best thing.
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