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74 terms

Psychology Final Exam

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basic science
the pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomenon for its own sake
applied science
discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals
hypothesis
an assumption or prediction about behavior that is tested through scientific research
theory
a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study
physiological needs
having to do with an organism's physical processes
cognitive needs
having to do with an organism's thinking and understanding
psychology
the scientific study of behavior that is tested through scientific research
4 goals of psychology
describe, predict, explain, influence
wilhelm wundt
set up the first psychology lab in germany and used introspection (scientific method)
introspection
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
functionalist
a psychologist who studies the function (rather than the structure) of consciousness
sir francis galton
wanted to understand how heredity influences a person's abilities, character, and behavior; concluded that genius or eminence is a hereditary trait
gestalt principle
the experience that comes from organizing bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes
sigmund freud
studied the unconscious minds and dreams; created free association (the patient says anything that comes to mind)
ivan pavlov
behaviorist; the dog experiment
john b. watson
behaviorist; "little albert" --believed that psychology should concern itself only with the observable facts of behavior
b.f. skinner
introduced the concept of "reinforcement"
reinforcement
a response to a behavior that increases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated
behaviorist
a psychologist who analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment
cognitivist
a psychologist who studies how we process, store, retrieve, and use information and how cognitive processes influence our behavior
abraham maslow
described human nature as evolving and self-directed; humans are not controlled by events or by unconscious forces; each person is unique and has a self-concept to develop fully
dualism
the concept that the mind and body are separate and distinct
case study
research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants
sample
the small group of participants, out of the total number available, that a researcher studies
naturalistic observation
research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering
survey
research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
longitudinal study
research method in which data is collected about a group of participant over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development
correlation
the measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data
double-blind experiment
an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received which treatment
single-blind experiment
an experiment in which the participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment
self-fulfilling prophecy
a situation in which a researcher's expectations influence that person's own behavior, and thereby influence the participant's behavior
placebo effect
a change in a participant's illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect, rather than the actual treatment
central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord
somatic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls internal biological functions
neurons
the long, thin cells of nerve tissue along which messages travel to and from the brain
neurotransmitters
the chemicals released by the neurons, which determine the rate at which other neurons fire
hindbrain
a part of the brain located at the rear base of the skull that is involved in the basic processes of life
midbrain
a small part of the brain above the pons that integrates sensory information and relays it upward
forebrain
a part of the brain that covers the brain's central core
corpus callosum
carries messages back and forth between the two hemispheres of the brain to jointly control human functions
EEG
a machine used to record the electrical activity of large portions of the brain
regions of the cerebral cortex
parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, frontal lobe, primary motor cortex, primary somatosensory cortex
endocrine system
a chemical communication system, using hormones, by which messages are sent through the bloodstream
nature vs. nurture
inherited genes vs. environmental factors
REM sleep
a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, a deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming
biofeedback
the process of learning to control bodily states with the help of machines monitoring the states to be controlled
meditation
the focusing of attention to clear one's mind and produce relaxation
hypnosis
a state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility
absolute threshold
the weakest amount of a stimulus that a person can detect half the time
difference threshold
the smallest change in a physical stimulus that can be detected between two stimuli
weber's law
the principle that for any change in a stimulus to be detected, a constant proportion of that stimulus must be added or subtracted
pupil
the opening in the iris that regulates the amount of light entering the eye
lens
a flexible, elastic, transparent structure in the eye that changes its shape to focus light on the retina
optic nerve
the nerve that carries impulses from the retina to the brain
auditory nerve
the nerve that carries impulses from the inner ear to the brain, resulting in the perception of sound
vestibular system
three semicircular canals that provide the sense of balance, located in the inner ear and connected to the brain by a nerve
olfactory nerve
the nerve that carries small impulses from the nose to the brain
kinesthesis
the sense of movement and body position
rods
visual receptor cells in the retina that are sensitive to light but not color
classical conditioning
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus
discrimination
the ability to respond differently to to similar but distinct stimuli
generalization
responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
extinction
the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence
primary reinforcer
stimulus that is naturally rewarding, such as food or water
secondary reinforcer
stimulus such as money that becomes rewarding through its link with its primary reinforcer
negative reinforcement
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
response chain
learned reactions that follow one another in sequence, each reaction producing the signal for the next
avoidance conditioning
training of an organism to withdraw from or prevent an unpleasant stimulus before it starts
latent learning
alteration of a behavioral tendency that is not demonstrated by an immediate, observable change in behavior
shaping
technique of operant conditioning in which the desired behavior is "molded" by first rewarding any act similar to that behavior and then requiring ever-closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward
martin seligman
learned helplessness--stability, globality, and internality
edward tolman
establish latent learning (rat experiment); argued that learning involved more than mechanical responses to stimuli