a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
The traditional story relates that Pheidippides (530 BC-490 BC), an Athenian herald, was sent to Sparta to request help when the Persians landed at Marathon, Greece.
Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry (287-212 BC)
Greek historian. Considered the greatest historian of antiquity, he wrote a critical history of the Peloponnesian War that contains the funeral oration of Pericles
study of the technique and rules for using language effectively (especially in public speaking)
A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization.
a self-governing city-state; the basic political unit of the Greek world. The polis comprised a city, with its acropolis and agora and the surrounding territory.
formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
lover of, or searcher for, wisdom or knowledge; person who regulates his or her life by the light of reason
people from Greek mainland who conquered central Crete; warring people who grouped themselves into clans and tribes
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
the higest mountain in Greece, where the ancient Greeks believed many of their gods and godesses lived
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
Battle of Marathon
a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.
philosopher who wrote more than 200 books from politics to astronomy; made Lyceum and Assembly, two schools
(philosophy) the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno
A war (around 1200 B.C.), in which an army lead by Mycenaean kings attacked the city of Troy in Anatolia.
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
Alexander the Great
Greek military leader whos armies conquerd vast amounts of land, ruler of 1st great European Empire of the ancient world
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
Battle of Zama
the battle in 202 BC in which Scipio decisively defeated Hannibal at the end of the second Punic War
general and ally of Caesar, divided the Roman world with Octavian, committed suicide with Cleopatra
The Roman Empire in AD 117-138. He ordered the construction of this wall. He traveled though his empire to strengthen it's frontiers and encourage learning and architecture.
Bread and Circuses
public entertainment that roman elites used to keep the plebeians happy and distracted from problems in the empire
an ancient city-state in N Africa, near modern Tunis: founded by the Phoenicians in the middle of the 9th century b.c.; destroyed in 146 b.c. in the last of the Punic Wars.
the Roman senator who feared Carthage would grow too strong and ended every speech with a cry, "Carthage must be destroyed!"
"Veni, Vidi, Vici"
I came, I saw, I conquered, I came, I saw, I conquered, Julius Caesar Battle of Zela 47 B.C.
the collection of books of the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, the Pauline and other Epistles, and Revelation
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Trained fighters who were usually slaves, slaves in the Roman empire who fought to death as entertainment
A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians know that he to be Son of God and the Christ.
a river in Italy. On the night of January 10, 49 BC, Caesar took his army across it. He marched his army swiftly toward Rome, and Pompey fled.
swore to his father, Hamilcar, to get revenge on Rome, made Carthage army when age 29 and attacked Rome, general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
Pope Gregory VII
Pope from 1073 to 1085; excommunicated Henry IV then forgave him, later was deposed by Henry IV, no nuetral view; aroused most hatred and contempt; banned lay investiture
founded by St. Dominic de Guzman; vows of poverty; stressed missionary work; preached gospel and fought heresy
Eleanor of Aquitaine
powerful French duchess; divorced the king of France to marry Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about half of France with him
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church
Perhaps the best-known system was the common, or open field, system of farming in which the land of a particular parish was divided into two, three, four, or even more fields depending on local conditions.
under his rule, the Franks became Christians and created one of the strongest kingdoms in Europe
crop rotation, seed drill and breeding stronger horses and fatter sheep & cattle
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Ruler of Florence. Patron of the Arts. Commissioned "The David" by Michelangelo.
he had many reforms including: placing heavy taxes on wealthy citizens, building sewers and paving streets, commisioning art works, and encouraging arhcitects to build beautiful churches.
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government. His method lead to a strong belief in getting what he wants (1469-1527)
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Queen who succeeded Edward VI and attempted to return Catholicism to England by persecuting Protestants.
Medieval Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy. Dealt the influence of the afterlife.
The effort to change or reform the Roman Catholic Church, which led to the establishment of Protestant churches
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
These were the "radicals" in Reformation in which someone would choose if they wanted to be baptized
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on October 31, 1517.
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
A 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
Italy's leading cultural center during Renaissance; important for trade and commerce;dominated by Medici's
Italian painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520)
to withdraw a statement or belief to which one has previously been committed, renounce, retract
teachings of Martin Luther emphasizing the cardinal doctrine of justification by faith alone
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
a former tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church (1232-1820) created to discover and suppress heresy
French nativist philosopher; proponent of dualism; argued that "threads" within the body control movement, and that some behaviors occur without thought
Sir Thomas More
English statesman who opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded
a series of uprisings by German peasants against their landowners. over 130,000 peasants were killed
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
spread by religious reformers' preachings about the Devil and severe economic hardships (1560-1660)
Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus (2nd century AD)
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
Published work of many philosphes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
These were conclusions reached by the philosophes against which debate was impossible
Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745)
elegant sitting room where guests are received, informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625