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254 terms

Foundations Midterm

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Olympic Games
Greek sporting festival held every four years to honor Zeus
Iliad
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the siege of Troy
Odyssey
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
oligarchy
form of government in which a few people have the power
Euclid
Greek Mathematician (Father of Geometry) who taught in Alexandria
Hera
queen of the Olympian gods in ancient Greek mythology
oracle
a prophecy (usually obscure or allegorical) revealed by a priest or priestess
Pheidippedes
The traditional story relates that Pheidippides (530 BC-490 BC), an Athenian herald, was sent to Sparta to request help when the Persians landed at Marathon, Greece.
Archimedes
Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry (287-212 BC)
Thucydides
Greek historian. Considered the greatest historian of antiquity, he wrote a critical history of the Peloponnesian War that contains the funeral oration of Pericles
rhetoric
study of the technique and rules for using language effectively (especially in public speaking)
drama
a dramatic work intended for performance by actors on a stage
Hellenistic
Greek-like
Minoans
earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete by 2000 B.C.
Dorians
A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization.
polis
a self-governing city-state; the basic political unit of the Greek world. The polis comprised a city, with its acropolis and agora and the surrounding territory.
phalanx
formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)
tyrant
a cruel and oppressive dictator
Aristophanes
an ancient Greek dramatist remembered for his comedies (448-380 BC)
Dionysus
God of wine
Socrates
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
Delian League
Pact joined in by Athenians and other Greeks to continue the war with Persia
Peloponnesian
war lasting from 431 to 404 B.C. in which athens and its allies were defeated
League
a group of allies
tragedy
an event resulting in great loss and misfortune
philosopher
lover of, or searcher for, wisdom or knowledge; person who regulates his or her life by the light of reason
Myceneans
people from Greek mainland who conquered central Crete; warring people who grouped themselves into clans and tribes
Homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Acropolis
a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
Spartans
the group of soldiers that took kids at the age of 6 to make them into fighters
Athens
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
Polytheistic
Belief in many gods
Aphrodite
goddess of love and beauty and daughter of Zeus in ancient mythology
Persian Wars
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)
Battle of Salamis
Surprise defeat of Persians by Athens navy
Golden Age of Athens
a time of great prosperity and achievement.
Plato
Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society
Peloponnesian
of or relating to Peloponnesus
legislature
a group of people chosen to make laws
direct democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Mount Olympus
the higest mountain in Greece, where the ancient Greeks believed many of their gods and godesses lived
Pericles
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
Battle of Marathon
a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians
Xerxes
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.
Aristotle
philosopher who wrote more than 200 books from politics to astronomy; made Lyceum and Assembly, two schools
Stoicism
(philosophy) the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno
Hippocrates
Father of Medicine
Herodotus
the ancient greek known as the father of history
Trojan War
A war (around 1200 B.C.), in which an army lead by Mycenaean kings attacked the city of Troy in Anatolia.
Epic
a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
Helots
Slaves to the Spartans that revolted and nearly destroyed Sparta in 650 B.C.E.
Solon
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
Zeus
king of the Greek Gods
Athena
Goddess of wisdom, skills, and warfare
King Darius
king of Persia who tried to invade Greece but was defeated
Parthenon
temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena
Sophocles
writer of plays; used three actors; and made Oedipus Rex, and Antigone
Alexander the Great
Greek military leader whos armies conquerd vast amounts of land, ruler of 1st great European Empire of the ancient world
Agora
the marketplace in ancient Greece
Bard
a lyric poet
Virgil
Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied
Consuls
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
tribunes
Officials elected by Rome's popular assemblies
Battle of Zama
the battle in 202 BC in which Scipio decisively defeated Hannibal at the end of the second Punic War
Diocletian
He was a general that became emperor in A.D. 284, introduced reforms
Mark Antony
general and ally of Caesar, divided the Roman world with Octavian, committed suicide with Cleopatra
Hadrian
The Roman Empire in AD 117-138. He ordered the construction of this wall. He traveled though his empire to strengthen it's frontiers and encourage learning and architecture.
Bread and Circuses
public entertainment that roman elites used to keep the plebeians happy and distracted from problems in the empire
Pantheon
all the gods of a people or religion
Circus Maximus
Roman oval arena; site of chariot races
Apostles
Followers associated most closely with Jesus
Diaspora
the body of Jews (or Jewish communities) outside Palestine or modern Israel
Christianity
the religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ
Persecution
mistreatment of people because of their beliefs
Hierarchy
a group organized by rank
Aeneid
epic poem by Virgil that told the story of a great Trojan hero, Aeneas
dictator
A ruler who has complete power over a country
veto
vote against
Carthage
an ancient city-state in N Africa, near modern Tunis: founded by the Phoenicians in the middle of the 9th century b.c.; destroyed in 146 b.c. in the last of the Punic Wars.
Cato
the Roman senator who feared Carthage would grow too strong and ended every speech with a cry, "Carthage must be destroyed!"
"Veni, Vidi, Vici"
I came, I saw, I conquered, I came, I saw, I conquered, Julius Caesar Battle of Zela 47 B.C.
Augustus
First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew.
Marcus Aurelius
last emperor of the Pax Romana
civil law
the legal code of ancient Rome
Jerusalem
A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
Jews
followers of judaism
martyrs
People who suffer or die for their beliefs
Constantinople
capital of the Byzantine Empire
New Testaments
the collection of books of the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, the Pauline and other Epistles, and Revelation
Republic
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting. (Like the USA)
Plebeians
lower class, usually small farmers
Punic Wars
Roman victory over Carthage
Spartacus
a gladiator who lead a slave revolt
Cleopatra
beautiful and charismatic queen of Egypt
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Gladiators
Trained fighters who were usually slaves, slaves in the Roman empire who fought to death as entertainment
Colosseum
A large stadium in ancient Rome where athletic events took place
Satire
language or writing that exposes follies or abuses by holding them up to ridicule
Jesus
A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians know that he to be Son of God and the Christ.
Senate
the upper house of the United States Congress
forum
a place of assembly for the people in ancient Greece
Rubicon River
a river in Italy. On the night of January 10, 49 BC, Caesar took his army across it. He marched his army swiftly toward Rome, and Pompey fled.
Hannibal
swore to his father, Hamilcar, to get revenge on Rome, made Carthage army when age 29 and attacked Rome, general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War
Julius Caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Ides of March
March 15, 44 BC the day Ceasar was murdered
Caligula
roman emperor who named his horse the senator
Cicero
a Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose (106-43 BC)
aqueducts
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities
zealots
groups of Jews who wanted to rebel aginast the Romans
messiah
Jesus Christ
disciples
those who follow Jesus
gentiles
People who are not Jewish
Edict of Milan
313 CE Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire
Patricians
the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
Twelve Tables
Rome's first code of laws; adopted in 450 B.C.
Legion
a large military unit
Livy
Historian of Roman Republic who wrote about the struggle between plebians and patricians
Pompey
his allies in the Senate ordered Caesar to give up command of his armies
Octavian
first emperor of Rome
Nero
Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)
concrete
adj. based on facts, not on ideas or guesses
Ptolemy
ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe
Roman Law
the legal code of ancient Rome
Peter/ Paul
2 of the 12 disciples of Jesus
Constantine
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
Huns
a powerful nomadic people of unknown ethnic origin who invaded europe
Age of Faith
What the middle ages was called because of the widespread Christian belief
Charlemagne
king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor
Vikings
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia
troubadours
wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women
sacraments
Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church
Benedict
Italian monk who founded the Benedictine order about 540 (480-547)
Pope Gregory VII
Pope from 1073 to 1085; excommunicated Henry IV then forgave him, later was deposed by Henry IV, no nuetral view; aroused most hatred and contempt; banned lay investiture
castle life
wasn't nice like in fairy tales, it was where farm animals and sewage were kept
Dominicans
founded by St. Dominic de Guzman; vows of poverty; stressed missionary work; preached gospel and fought heresy
trade fairs
an event at which many different companies show and sell their products , trade show
simony
the selling of official positions in the medieval roman catholic church
manor
the landed estate of a lord (including the house on it)
apprentice
works for an expert to learn a trade
canon law
body of laws of a church
Benedictine rule
Set of rules that govern monk's ives
friar
A member of a catholic religious order
Eleanor of Aquitaine
powerful French duchess; divorced the king of France to marry Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about half of France with him
Dark Ages
the dark period of history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance
usury
the act of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest
feudalism
system in which poor people are legally bound to work for wealthy landowners
anti-Semitism
prejudice and/or hatred of jews.
serf
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
excommunication
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church
St. Patrick
patron saint of ireland
3-field system
Perhaps the best-known system was the common, or open field, system of farming in which the land of a particular parish was divided into two, three, four, or even more fields depending on local conditions.
monastery
the residence of a religious community, a community of monks
Clovis
under his rule, the Franks became Christians and created one of the strongest kingdoms in Europe
guild
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
vassal
a person holding a fief
knight
originally a person of noble birth trained to arms and chivalry
interdict
a court order prohibiting a party from doing a certain activity
agricultural changes
crop rotation, seed drill and breeding stronger horses and fatter sheep & cattle
Canterbury Tales
written after 1387 by Geoffrey Chaucer, English, writes satire
Islam
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
Treaty of Verdun
The treaty that split up the empire into three regions.
fief
Land owned by a lord given to a vassal in return for a service
chivalry
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages
secular
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
tithe
an offering of a tenth part of some personal income
Michelangelo
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Lorenzo de'Medici
Ruler of Florence. Patron of the Arts. Commissioned "The David" by Michelangelo.
Cosimo de'Medici
he had many reforms including: placing heavy taxes on wealthy citizens, building sewers and paving streets, commisioning art works, and encouraging arhcitects to build beautiful churches.
Donatello
Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures (1386-1466)
Gothic
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
Machiavelli
a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government. His method lead to a strong belief in getting what he wants (1469-1527)
Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Presbyterianism
the doctrines and practices of the Presbyterian Church: based in Calvinism
Mary Tudor
Queen who succeeded Edward VI and attempted to return Catholicism to England by persecuting Protestants.
Jane Seymour
Queen of England as the third wife of Henry VIII and mother of Edward VI (1509-1537)
Ignatius of Loyola
Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus
Sistine Chapel
the church in the Vatican where Michaelangelo painted the ceiling
Patron
someone who supports or champions something
da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
Copernicus
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
Romanesque
Style of church architecture using round arches, domes, thick walls, and small windows
Dante Alighieri
Medieval Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy. Dealt the influence of the afterlife.
Cervantes
Spanish writer, who wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha
Johann Tetzel
The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.
Reformation
The effort to change or reform the Roman Catholic Church, which led to the establishment of Protestant churches
John Calvin
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
Anabaptists
These were the "radicals" in Reformation in which someone would choose if they wanted to be baptized
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor and Charles I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united
Francis Bacon
English statesman and philosopher
humanism
the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
Mona Lisa
painting by da Vinci, has no eyebrows
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and physicist
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
95 Theses
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on October 31, 1517.
Protestant
the Protestant churches and denominations collectively
predestination
previous determination as if by destiny or fate
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Catholic Reformation
A 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
Johanes Kepler
furthered copernicus' work to disprove ptolemy's geocentric view
Albrecht Durer
a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance (1471-1528)
Florence
Italy's leading cultural center during Renaissance; important for trade and commerce;dominated by Medici's
Petrarch
an Italian poet famous for love lyrics (1304-1374)
Raphael
Italian painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520)
Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe
recant
to withdraw a statement or belief to which one has previously been committed, renounce, retract
Lutheranism
teachings of Martin Luther emphasizing the cardinal doctrine of justification by faith alone
theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance
Henry VIII
English king that left the catholic church and started the Church of England
Wives of Henry VIII
Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, and Catherine Parr
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Inquisition
a former tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church (1232-1820) created to discover and suppress heresy
Renaissance values
Humanism; spiritual and material was good
Galileo
1564-1642, Italian physicist and astronomer.
Rene Descartes
French nativist philosopher; proponent of dualism; argued that "threads" within the body control movement, and that some behaviors occur without thought
Sir Thomas More
English statesman who opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded
indulgence
an inability to resist the gratification of whims and desires
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor and Charles I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united
Peasants Revolt
a series of uprisings by German peasants against their landowners. over 130,000 peasants were killed
John Knox
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
witch hunts
spread by religious reformers' preachings about the Devil and severe economic hardships (1560-1660)
Ptolemy
Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus (2nd century AD)
Enlightened Despots
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
Bach, Mozart, Handel
Enlightenment musicians and composers; classical music
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Act of Union
This act united Upper and Lower Canada into one colony.
Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
Diderot
Published work of many philosphes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.
Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
physiocrats
This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
Charles I
king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor
Charles II
King of England and Scotland and Ireland during the Restoration (1630-1685)
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Natural laws
These were conclusions reached by the philosophes against which debate was impossible
Rousseau
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland
laissez
to leave
James II
the last Stuart to be king of England and Ireland and Scotland
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Walpole
Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745)
Salon
elegant sitting room where guests are received, informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
Voltaire
Philosopher that defended the freedom of thought.
Rembrandt
influential Dutch artist (1606-1669)
Cavaliers
supporters of Charles I
Roundheads
supporters of Oliver Cromwell
Restoration
the act of restoring something or someone to a satisfactory state
Baroque
elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
James I
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625
Tories
a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist
Oliver Cromwell
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)

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