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Terms in this set (56)
An important factor in the rapid development of industry in the United States during the last half of the 19c was
the availability of capital for investment purposes
In its approach to union organization, the Knights of Labor officially
welcomed both skilled and unskilled workers
A long-range influence of Samuel Gompers on the American labor movement was his advocacy of
non-involvement in party politics
The concept of "limited liability" contributed to the development of corporations and was appealing to many Americans because
they risked only their own investment and were not responsible for the debts of the corporation &
they did not have to be personally involved in the corporation to purchase stock in it &
entrepreneurs could now amass great sums of money for investment purposes
The "Gospel of Wealth," as advanced by Andrew Carnegie, promoted the concept that people with wealth should
use their resources to help society
One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it
represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business
J. P. Morgan monitored his competition by placing officers of his bank on the board of companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as a(n)
The first "big business" in America, at least in terms of finance, labor relations, and management, was
the railroad industry
The Supreme Court in the United States v. Knight Company
diminished the effectiveness of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by ruling that manufacturing was not interstate commerce
Why did the proportion of women working in clerical jobs increase in the late 19c and early 20c
because many women had taken typing and shorthand courses in school, employers did not have to invest much in training them
The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 had in common the fact that they
were greatly strengthened by the Supreme Court in the years after they were passed
Which type of governmental assistance was most helpful to labor during the period 1876-1914
Labor unions were ruled not to be illegal conspiracies provided that their methods were honorable and peaceful in the Supreme Court case of
Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)
The 1880s movement for the eight-hour working day is usually associated with which of the following labor organizations
the Knights of Labor
Which of the following best accounts for the success of Standard Oil
its corporate structure--known as horizontal integration--allowed the company to grow tremendously
Terence V. Powderly, head of the Knights of Labor, advocated
a gradual end to the wage system and the reorganization of society on cooperative principles &
the admission of blacks into local Knights of Labor assemblies
"Yellow dog" contracts were contracts
in which workers promised not to strike or join a union
A major reason for the low wages of unskilled workers throughout the late 19c was that
management was able to draw on cheap labor on a global scale
In the 19c, railroads formed pools in order to
fix prices and divide business for greater profit
A closed shop requires workers to
join a union to secure a job
The Haymarket bombing of May 4, 1886, was important to the labor movement because it
aroused public opposition against labor, contributed to the decline of the Knights of Labor, and caused an increase in the membership of the AFL
Why was the Clayton Anti-Trust Act an improvement over the Sherman Anti-Trust Act?
labor unions and farm organizations were no longer considered as monopolies in restraint of trade
In the case of Gibbons v. Ogden, the United States Supreme Court did what
affirmed the power of the federal government over commerce
By the end of the 1800s, the use of pools, trusts, and holding companies by big business resulted in
a concentration of economic power in the hands of a few
All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion EXCEPT
a large pool of unskilled labor.
American ingenuity and inventiveness.
an abundance of natural resources.
Many employers cut wages in the late 19c by
hiring women and children
President Grover Cleveland responded to the 1894 Pullman strike by
intervening on the side of management
In the West, the immigrants who bore the brunt of labor hostility in the 1870s and 1880s were
Labor relations at the end of the 19c were
characterized by violence and thousands of strikes
The ideas of Social Darwinism allowed men of wealth, like Carnegie and Rockefeller, to
justify the economic inequality that favored them over the nation's poor
Founder and first president of the American Federation of Labor, he became a leading spokesman for the labor movement.
A business that agrees to hire only workers who belong to a single labor union.
This Supreme Court decision declared that a state could regulate private property affected by the public interest.
Munn v. Illinois
Unscrupulous business leaders.
A combination of companies or industries established to reduce competition and increase profits.
This labor confrontation took place between striking workers and police in Chicago where labor took on a radical Marxist-anarchist image in the press and public opinion turned against the union movement.
Haymarket Square Riot
This socialist party labor leader was imprisoned for denouncing capitalism and World War I.
Eugene V. Debs
This law placed telephone and telegraph companies under I. C. C. supervision.
This Supreme Court decision ruled that the Sherman Anti-Trust Act did not apply to manufacturing.
US v. EC Knight Co.
The attempt of two or more business firms to limit competition by charging the same price and sharing the same market.
This 1887 federal law outlawed unfair business practices and established the first regulatory commission.
Interstate Commerce Act
This financier dominated American railroading at the turn of the century.
This endorsed the use of a court injunction in a labor strike.
In Re Debs
Passed in 1890, this legislation declared combinations in restraint of trade to be illegal.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
In his book, The Theory of the Leisure Class, he said that business elites displayed conspicuous consumption.
This multimillionaire was the largest steel producer in the country. In an article he wrote, he supported the idea of the Gospel of Wealth.
A company that forces a worker to sign an employment agreement which states that the worker cannot join a union before he can be employed.
This private detective agency was often used by business to intimidate workers and stop strikes.
He was the most prominent multimillionaire in the East who controlled most of the eastern railroads, including the New York Central.
A court order obtained by a company to ban unions and stop strikes.
Probably the most versatile and prolific inventor in American history, he received thousands of patents for his inventions.
Thomas A. Edison
These radical Pennsylvania anthracite coal miners damaged American labor's image by using violence, intimidation, and murder to address their grievances against the mine owners.
This legislation empowered the I. C. C. to fix reasonable maximum railroad rates.
The control of an industry or service by a few powerful companies.
He attacked the power of the big corporation in his book, The Octopus.
This legislation outlawed interlocking directorates and unfair pricing policies.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
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