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dual revolution

Fusion of economic and political changes in Europe

Congress of Vienna

Peace settlement in 1815

Holland and Belgium

countries that became united through Congress of VIenna

Robert Castlereagh

representative of England at CoV

Charles Talleyrand

representative of France at CoV

countries i the Holy Alliance

Austria, Prussia, Russia - sought to surpress liberal ideas in Europe

Carlsbad Decrees

issued by Meternich in 1819 to surpress liberal ideas in Germany

Germans, Mayars (Hungarians), Czechs

three main ethnic groups in Austria


ideaology based on liberty and equality

laissez faire

no government interference in economy

Adam Smith

major proponent of liberalism


sense of cultural unity

Jules Michelet

wrote The People in 1846


emerged first in France, believed in economic planning

Count Henri de Saint-Simon

major proponent of French Utopian Socialism


the court, the aristoracy, lawyers, and churchmen


scientists, engineers, industrialists

Charles Fourier

believed marraige was prostitution

Louis Blanc

wrote Organization of Work (1839)

Pierre Proudhon

wrote What is Property? (1840)

Carl Marx

wrote Communist Manifesto

Georg Hegel

Marx's theory of historical revolution was based on his ideas


belief in emotional exuberance

Sturm und Drang

storm and stress

William Wordsworth

wrote the famous poem, "Daffodils"

Walter Scott

This Scottish Romantic poet used history to write his poems

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

This German Romantic poet influence Walter Scott

Germaine de Stael

a Franco-Swiss writer living in exile, urged the French to throw away their worn-out classical models On Germany: extolled the spontaneity and enthusiasm of German writers and thinkers

Victor Hugo

wrote Hunchback of Notre Dame

Amandine Aurore Lucie Dupin

known by pen name George Sand; wrote the controversial book Lelia

Grimm brothers

rescued German fairy tales

Aleksander Pushkin

greatest Russian poet

Eugene Delacroix

greatest and most moving romantic painter; Liberty Leading the People

Joseph Turner and John Constable

notable Romantic painters

Alexander Ypsilanti

Greek patriot and general in Russian army-led revolt in 1821

Corn Laws

regulation of grain trade in Great Britain


dominating Britsih political party

Reform Bill of 1832

removed rotten boroughs; House of Commons got more power

Chartist movement

strived for universal suffrage

T/F: Chartist movement succeeded


Ten Hours Act of 1947

limited workday for women

Great Famine

ravaged Ireland; forced migration

Charles X

became increasingly reactionary until rev. of 1830

Louis Phillipe

ousted from France in 1848


start of revolution in Austria in 1848

Ferdinand I

weak emperor of Asutria

Francis Joseph

replaced Ferdinand, surpressed the revolution

Nicholas I

lended hand to Austria to crush revolt

Fredrick William I

weak ruler of Prussia; sacked up to surpress revolution

Schleswig and Holstein

area of dispute between Denmark and Prussia

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