Science- Chapter 5
Terms in this set (19)
a characteristic that helps an organism survive and reproduce in its environment
may be physical
a group of organisms that can mate with one another to produce fertile offspring
groups of individuals of the same species living in the same place
the process in which inherited characteristics within a population change over generations, such that new species sometimes arise
remains or imprints of once living organisms
organizes fossils by their estimated ages and physical similarities
a genetically determined characteristic
the human practice of breeding animals or plants that have certain desired characteristics
the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do
- helps explain evolution
the period between the birth of one generation and the birth of the next generation
the formation of a new species as a result of evolution
How does the fossil record show that species have changed over time?
Fossils found in newer layers of the crust tend to be similar to present day organisms. This similarity indicates that the fossilized organisms were close relatives of present day organisms. Fossils from older layers of the crust are less similar to present day organisms than fossils from newer layers.
What evidence do fossils provide about the time of ancestors of whales? How are whales different from fish?
Modern whales do not have hind limbs but have tiny hip bones. Scientists think that these hip bones were inherited from whales' four legged ancestors. Whales are different from fish because whales are mammals
Why is structure a better indicator than function to show common ancestry?
Structure shows a common ancestor better than function. EX: Bats and whales share a common ancestor (by looking at the bones). We also know that, as flying animals, both bats and insects have wings. If we were to use function to determine common ancestry, we might think -incorrectly- that insects and bats are more closely related than bats and whales are.
Describe the four parts of Darwin's Natural Selection.
1) Overproduction: Ex: Laying thousands of eggs. Some will survive and reach adulthood and some will not.
2) Inherited Variation: Every individual has its own traits. Each tarantula is similar to but not identical to its parents
3) Struggle to Survive: Some may die of disease, some may get caught by predators, only a few make it to adulthood
4) Successful Reproduction: The organisms that are best adapted to their environment are likely to have many offspring that survive
What were Darwin's observations from his journey and what knowledge did Darwin lack that modern science now uses to explain evolution?
Darwin observed that finches on different islands had different beaks. These beaks adapted to the food that was available to them on a specific island. Modern science has the technology to look at DNA and Darwin did not have that advantage.
Give three examples of natural selection in action.
1 - Adaptations to hunting
2 - insecticide resistance
3 - competition for mates.
Identify two ways that an organism can be compared to provide evidence of evolution from a common ancestor.
1- Living organisms can be compared in terms of skeletal body structure with other living organisms and with organisms from the fossils record
2- DNA comparison
Explain how genetics is related to evolution.
Genetics provides and explanation of what happens inside cells of organism evolution.