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France and the French Revolution
Terms in this set (37)
the name for the old institutions and customs practiced in France prior to the Revolution in 1789
great grandson of Loius XIV(14th) who succeeded to the throne in 1774. His excessive spending on luxuries on luxuries and foreign wars moved France closer to collapse " Apres-moi, le deluge. " Not concerned over France's future.
Alexis De Tocqueville
French nobleman and writer who described much of the Old Regime customs and changes brought about by the revolution. Also traveled to the U.S. during the 1820s and described American democracy.
Name for the French COURTS who could overrule the king's decrees but seldom did because of bribes and royal influences. Often hereditary ositions
Name for the segment of the Thrid Estate who were usually wealthy and well educated. They were likely group to resent the nobility and support the ideas of the philosophes.
French philosophers who attempted to aply reason and logic to all areas of society and who were often critical of the Catholic Church, the monarchy, and the social conditions in France in the mid 1700s.
Louis XVI (16th) r. 1774 - 1792
French king who was beheaded during the Reign of Terror art of the French Revolution in 1792
French queen who was beheaded during the Reign of Terror art of the French Revolution in 1792. Born in Austria and very unoular with the French eole because of her frivolous sending ractices and disregard for the overty of the eole.
Estates - General
Name for French LEGISLATURE prior to the French Revolution. Made up of representatives from the three estates or classes. Real control was exercised by the 1st and 2nd Estates with very little power for the 3rd estate.
National Assembly 1789
New legislature created by the Third Estate in 1789.
Tennis Court 1789
The meeting of the members of the 3rd Estate on an indoor tennis court. ledged to not adjourn until a new constitution was written.
Old French fortress and prison which was stormed by the July 14, 1789, French mobs with the intention of freeing political prisoners thought to be held there. Celebrated as the French Independence Day and beginning of French Revolution
Decleration of Rights of Man
Statement of the rights of French citizens to revolt against an oppressive government. Based on the American Declaration of Independence. Death Certificate of the Olf Regime. Liberty, Equality, property,
Name for French citizens, mainly nobles, who fled the violence of the French Revolution and sought sanctuary in other countries, mainly England and Spain.
song adopted in 1789 as the official anthem of the new French Republic. proclaims the glory of the revolution.
FRENCH LABORING CLASS who made up most of the mobs who attacked government buildings and monarchy. Some of the strongest supporters of the violence of the Reign of Terror. Name means without pants because they were too poor to afford the fancy knee pants worn by the nobility.
pOLITICAL CLUB led by Maximillian Robespierre which dominated the revolutionary government during art of the Revolution and was responsible for the Reign of Terror.
Leader of the Jacobins, along Jean paul Marat, and one of the leading sponsors of the Reign of Terror. Killed on the guillotine in 1793 when the French eole finally turned against the JAcobins.
The moderate faction in the National Assembly and National Convention who opposed the Jacobins and the violence of the revolution. The name means " the mountain" and describes the raised area in which they were seated in the legislature.
Reign of Terror
A period of extreme violence and executions of the nobility and political opponents of the Jacobins on the guillotine. Between 10,000 and 20,000 died during this period in paris and in other French cities.
Committee of public Saftey
Small group of Jacobins who were in charge of the Reign of Terror and the operations of the French government during the Reign of Terror period. Led by Robespierre and Marat.
Georges Jacques Danton
One time leader of the Jacobins who was replaced by Robespierre. Arrested and executed on Robespierre's orders when he oosed the violence of the revolution.
Five man committee which became the ruling government of France after the vcollase of the Reign of Terror in 1794. Overthrown by Naolean in 1799.
Jacques Louis David
Famous classical and nationalistic painter of the pre-revolutionary, revolutionary, and Napoleon Era. Painted Napoleon Crossing the Alps and the coronation of Napoleon as propaganda tools for Napoleon.
Describe the French political and governmental status under the old regime
A. France had an extravagant and inefficient government
B. The estates general had not met since 1614 so there was little representative government C. The king ruled by decrees. The courts were hereditary and most judges sought wealth and personal power
Describe the French society prior to the French revolution
A. There were three principal classes or estates in France under the old regime. B. The first estate was the Catholic clergy who had many privileges
C.The second estate was the nobility who owned about one fourth of all of France. They were highly privileged.
D. The third estate was made up of peasants city workers and the middle class. They had few privileges and heavy taxes.
E. The first and second Estates made up only 2% of the 28 million population everyone else was in the third estate
How did the status of the middle class and the peasants affect the move towards revolution in France?
A. The middle class or bourgeoisie consisting of merchants craftsman and professionals became economically powerful prior to the revolution. They had advantages of money and education. B. The ideas of the philosophes appealed more to the middle class who resented the special privileges of the top Estates. C. The peasants possessed the least wealth but bore the heaviest taxation. By 1789 the peasants demanded tax relief and the end to special privileges of the upper classes.
What was the status of the French economy prior to the revolution in 1789?
A.The French government was close to bankruptcy due to the extravagance of the king and court the exemption of upper classes from taxation and the chaotic system of collecting taxes.
B. The French loss of north America to England in the seven years war or French and Indian war plus the huge debts incurred from that war and the aid given to the Americans during their revolution had a disastrous effect on the economy.
What impact did the philosophers have on promoting the French Revolution?
A. The philosophes did not directly caused the French revolution but their ideas did stimulate people to seriously question conditions in France.
B. This led to the demand for reforms which resulted in violence and revolution.
What events led up to the tennis court oath and what were its results?
A. The third estate proposed that the three estates meet as one body rather than as three separate groups and that each man have one vote.
B. Louis X VI the nobles and the clergy rejected the proposal and ordered that Estates-General to adjourn.
C. The third estate met on an indoor tennis court proclaimed themselves to be the national assembly of France and took the tennis court oath.
D. Under the oath they promise to never disband until the kingdom was firmly on a constitutional basis.
E. Louis X VI finally gave in and ordered all groups to meet together.
What was the importance of the collapse of the bastille?
A. The bastille was a symbol of the oppression and tyranny of the absolute monarchy and the privileged nobility of France.
B. The day the bastille was captured, July 14, 1789, became the French Independence Day.
What reforms were passed by the new national assembly in 1789-91?
In August 1789 the national assembly past the following reforms that:
A. Abolished feudalism in France completely.
B. Did away with required tithe to support the church and clergy
C. Wipe out all class privileges and taxation and collection of taxes
D. Granted all citizens the right to hold public office
E. Issued the declaration of rights of man that stated the rights of liberty, property, equality and rebellion against an oppressive government.
Discuss the women's march on Versallies and its importance?
A. As aristocratic émigrés fled France woman had less jobs on October 5, 1789 Parisian woman met to protest high bread prices and shortages in the city
B. A mob of women decided to present their demands directly to the king of Versailles. They stormed the palace and forced the royal family to return to Paris with them.
C. The royal family were prisoners of the people from this point on.
Discuss the provisions of the civil Constitution of the clergy of 1790 and it's importance.
A. On July 12, 1790 the national assembly issued the civil Constitution of the clergy.
B. It provided that all bishops and parish priests were to be civil servants of the state.
C. They were to be elected by the people paid by the state and required to sign a loyalty oath to the state.
D. Louis XVI was forced to sign the document, but as a Catholic, he was offended by it.
E.many clergyman refuse to take the oath, and many Catholics turned against the revolutionary leaders as a result of the oath.
Why did France engage in a series of wars during its revolutionary years?
France began a series of wars with its neighbors for several reasons:
A. She wanted to spread revolutionary ideas and nationalism to surrounding countries, and the rulers of those countries wanted to stop these ideas.
B. France's neighbors wanted to rescue the king in restore the monarchy to power.
C. The leaders of the revolution kept France at war so their citizens would not notice that few improvements have been made in their lives since the overthrow of the king.
Why was Louis XVI and Mary Antoinette beheaded in 1793? What effect did the beheading of the French monarch have on France and the other national states in Europe?
A. As long as they were alive the king and queen were a focal point for those who wanted to restore the monarchy inside and outside France.
B. The leaders of the revolution hope to replace the king with his young son Louis XVII who they plan to control.
C. The attempted escape of the royal family to the
Netherlands showed their rejection of the revolution and its principles despite their outward cooperation.
D. The king was accused of treason for encouraging other countries to attack France to rescue the royal family and restore them to their throne.
What were the significant result of the revolution?
A. It overthrew the French monarchy and set up a republican form of government with a written constitution.
B.it helped unify France and rid the country of it's ineffective legal and financial systems.
C. The revolution strengthened the ideas of freedom of religion and social equality by inning class privilege and domination by the Catholic Church in France.
D.it ended the last remnants of feudalism in France and allowed peasants to own their own land
E. It's abolish guild restrictions for businesses, set up a single coat of commercial law, and a uniform system of metric weights and measures.
F. It's stimulated the development of a national secular system of education in France
G.it encouraged the growth of nationalism and many other countries in Europe
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