APES Chapter 4
Terms in this set (42)
The weather patterns that occur over the course of many years in specific regions on earth.
The gases that surround the earth that extends hundreds of miles above the surface of the planet.
The lowest atmospheric level that contains most of the oxygen and nitrogen. 0-16 km.
The second lowest atmospheric level that contains the ozone layer. 16-50 km.
The middle atmospheric level. 50-100 km.
The second highest atmospheric level that contains gases that block out X-rays and certain UV rays. It can get up to 1,750°C. 100-600 km.
The highest atmospheric layer.
The percentage of solar energy that is reflected off of a surface.
The quantity of substances that a fluid can contain before the substances condense.
The process in which, as air rises, the pressure on it lowers, allowing for its volume to increase, while decreasing density. This causes for the air to be cooler overall.
The process in which, as air sinks, the pressure on it increases, causing for its volume to decrease; therefore, increasing the density. This causes for the air to be warmer overall.
latent heat release
The phenomenon caused when water vapor condenses to form clouds. In order to do so, the water releases much of its heat into the surrounding air, thereby raising the temperature.
The process in which air rises over the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and then rises. Adiabatic cooling causes for it to rain, causing latent heat release, making the air rise again. The dry, cool air then sinks to the 30° N and S latitudes. The air is heated with adiabatic heating, creating hot, dry deserts at those latitudes. The air then goes back to the ITCZ to continue the process.
Intertropical Convergence Zone
The line that travels near the equator in a sine fashion caused by the earth's tilt.
A convection cell in which the air rises at the 60° latitudes and falls at the poles.
The phenomenon caused by the fact that different latitudes on the planet rotate at different rates. Because of this, objects are deflected by the change in speed.
Currents that occur at latitudes greater than 30° that move away from the equator, but in the direction of the earth's rotation.
Circular oceanic currents that travel clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.
The process in which cold, deep water rises up towards the top on the west coasts of many continents. This allows for highly nutritious ecosystems to come about.
The process in which warm water from the Gulf of Mexico travels across the Atlantic Ocean towards Western Europe. It then cools and the now salty water sinks. The water then moves southwards to Antarctica, where it travels to Alaska and rises through upwelling, which warms it up. The water then goes back to its original location.
El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
The phenomenon that occurs every 3-7 years, in which trade winds in the Pacific are weakened and then reversed. This prevents upwelling in South America. Its effects are coldness and wetness in the southwestern USA, and dry conditions in southern Africa and southeast Asia.
A phenomenon caused by coastal mountains in the way of atmospheric currents. As air hits the windward side of a mountain, it rises, causing it to cool and precipitate. When the air continues its path on the leeward side of the mountain, it is dry, creating such conditions on that side of the mountain.
A region on earth that has a specific range of annual temperatures and precipitation rates.
A biome in either high latitudes or altitudes that is below 0°C for many months in the year. Plants here are very small due to limited growing season.
Soil that is permanently frozen due to cold temperatures in tundras.
Forest biomes that exist in high latitudes that are limited by cold temperatures. Plants here are generally coniferous.
Forest biomes in mid-latitudes that have heavy precipitation for many months in the year and have very massive trees.
temperate seasonal forest
Forest biomes in mid-latitudes that have mainly deciduous trees and moderate temperatures and precipitation rates.
Mid to low latitude biomes that are very dry and are prone to fires. The soil is very rough, but it is good for grapes for wine.
temperate grassland/cold desert
Mid-latitude biomes that are really great for agriculture that have mostly small, non-woody plants.
Forest biomes in low latitudes that receive very high amounts of precipitation and have incredible biodiversity.
tropical seasonal forest/savanna
Low latitude biomes that have a combination of small trees and grasses, with little precipitation.
Low latitude biomes that are extremely hot and arid, and have almost no precipitation.
The layer of mud and silt under lakes and ponds.
Aquatic biomes that have freshwater with emergent plants. This includes swamps, marshes, and bogs.
Marine biomes that have emergent non-woody plants and exist in estruaries.
Marine biomes that have emergent trees and can exist in estruaries or just on a coast.
Underwater colonies of limestone skeletons in warm, shallow water, that provides incredible biodiversity.
The marine biome that takes up 90% of the biosphere. It has two zones, the photic and aphotic zones.
The area in open oceans in which light, and therefore photosynthetic producers exist, that extends about 200 meters downwards.
The area in open oceans that comprises most of the biome. Here, there is no sunlight, so the only producers must use chemosynthesis instead of photosynthesis.
The process of extracting energy from methane and hydrogen sulfide for aphotic producers.