Art. I, Section 8 gives Congress power to declare war, raise and support armies, provide for and maintain a navy, make rules for the government and regulation of the armed forces, and organize, arm, discipline, and call up the militia. Of course, several other congressional powers may have direct or indirect application to military purposes: tax and spending power, commerce power, Senate's treaty consent power, maritime power, investigatory power, etc. Congress has no general police power. Thus, on bar exam, the validity of fed statute cannot rely on the police power. However, Congress can exercise policy power-type powers as to Washington, D.C., pursuant to its power to legislate over the capital under Art. I, section 8, cl. 17, and over all U.S. possession (e.g., territories, military bases, Indian reservations) pursuant to the property power. Under Art. II, Section 2, the President is empowered "with the advice and consent of the Senate" to appoint "all ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the U.S., whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for ... but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. President is empowered by Art. II, Section 2, "to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the U.S., except in cases of impeachment." This power has been held to apply before, during, or after trial, and to extend to the offense of criminal contempt, but not to civil contempt, inasmuch as the latter involves the rights of third parties. The pardon power cannot be limited by Congress, and includes the power to commute a sentence on any conditions the President chooses, as long as they are not independently unconstitutional. Court will not review underlying policy decisions, such as general desirability for a particular public use or the extent to which property must be taken therefor. A use will be held "public" as long as it is rationally related to a legitimate public purpose., e.g., health, welfare, safety, moral, social, economic, political, or aesthetic ends. Government may even authorize taking by a private enterprise as long as taking will rebound to public advantage (e.g., railroads and public utilities) Right of all U.S. citizens over 18 years of age to vote is mentioned in 14th, 15th, 19th, 24th, and 26th Amendments. It extends to all national and state government elections, including primaries. Right is fundamental; thus, restrictions on voting, other than on the basis of age, residency, or citizenship, are invalid unless they can pass strict scrutiny.