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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (45)
What are the components of assessment?
- Carrying out general and related assessment objectives
- Conducting screenings
- Conducting in-depth testing, which usually involves: conversational and evoked speech samples, stimulability assessment and the administration of standardized tests
What are the general assessment objectives?
- Case history
- Oral peripheral examination
- Hearing screening
- Language assessment, if language problems are suspected
Discuss passing and failing a screening.
- Children who pass a screening procedure are judge to have age-appropriate articulatory-phonological skills.
- Those who fail a screening are scheduled for a comprehensive assessment.
What types of procedures are used for screening?
Different procedures are available to screen articulatory and phonological skills.
- If the child is willing to talk, a brief conversational sample may suffice; sometimes clinicians use pictures to test the production of certain speech sounds.
-Clinicians may also use standardized screening tests or the screening portions of full-length assessment tests of articulation.
Specific components of an assessment:
- Conversational speech samples
- Evoked speech samples (imitation, naming, sentence completion)
- Stimulability assessment (the child's ability to imitate the clinicians model)
- Standardized tests
What are the categories of scoring and analysis of assessment data?
- Independent vs. relational analysis
- Standard procedures
Discuss independent vs. relational analysis
- Clinicians can score and analyze assessment data in two ways: independent analysis or relational analysis. A more complete picture of a child's articulatory-phonological skills emerges when both types of analyses are performed.
- In independent analysis, a child's speech patterns are described without reference to the adult model of the language of the child's community.
- In a relational analysis, which is more commonly used in clinical settings, a child's speech is compared to the adult model of his or her speech community.
List the procedures that should be used to score and analyze assessment data.
- Use IPA to translate child's speeh
- Note how consistently errors are produced
- List phonetic contexts in which error sounds were produced correctly
- analyze tests according to manual procedures
How should error sounds be classified?
List the sounds in error and classify them according to an acceptable format (e.g., omissions-substitutions-distortions; errors in the pre-, inter-, and postvocalic positions of words).
What procedure should be used with a child with multiple misarticulations?
A phonological analysis- List the phonological processes the child uses and the percentage of time those processes are used.
What are the two major categories for organizing treatment for articulatory-phonological disorders?
- Motor approaches
- Cognitive-linguistic approaches
How separate are motor and cognitive-linguistic abilities?
Bernthal and Bankson (2004) state that this dichotomy is somewhat artificial because motor and cognitive-linguistic skills are intertwined; thus, these categories are not mutually exclusive. Yet, these two broad categories help clinicians conceptualize the foundation for treatment of children who are unintelligible.
How can a person determine which approach is appropriate?
-It is generally believed that motor-based approaches are best for children with several sounds in error (e.g., /r, s, l/).
- The cognitive-linguistic approaches are most appropriate for highly unintelligible children with multiple sound errors.
- But because many children have difficulties in both areas, clinicians frequently use a combination of motor and cognitive-linguistic approaches for remediation.
Discuss training broad and training deep
Based on the individual needs of the child, clinicians must decide between training broad and training deep.
- Training broad involves treating several sounds simultaneously.
-Training deep involves one or several sound being treated intensively. Other sounds are selected only when the child has achieved mastery of the initial targets.
Why should standardized tests not be used to assess tx progress?
tests include only a small number of items to sample each sound or pattern.
What is communicative potency?
The concept of communicative potency looks at how functional words are within an individual child's communication environment.
What is focused on with motor-based approaches?
- Establishing correct perception of erred phonemes
- Motor production of individual phonemes
What categories of errors are used to describe speech errors using the motor-based approaches?
What is the underlying assumption of motor-based approaches?
The underlying assumption is that motor practice leads to automatization and thus to generalization of correct productions to untrained contexts (Bernthal & Bankson, 2004)
What are the critical components of treatment with a motor-based approach?
Practice & drill
Discuss the order of complexity used with Van Riper's approach?
Practice occurs at increasingly complex motor levels until a sound is generalized into conversational speech. Thus, many clinicians who use the Van Riper approach to therpy teach /s/, e.g., in the following order: isolation, syllables, words, phrases, sentences, reading (if the child reads), and then conversation.
Why is auditory discrimination used?
based on the assumption that auditory discrimination training is a precursor to speech sound production training.
Who are motor-based approaches most effective?
- Motor-based approaches are most successful with children who have only several phonemes in error (e.g., /r/, /s/, /l/) and who are not highly unintelligible.
- Motor approaches work well for children who have physical difficulty producing target phonemes.
Discuss the research behind oral-motor tx.
While many grassroots clinicians believe that these exercises are effective, research has not proven that oral motor exercises facilitate changes in speech sound productions.
McCabe and Bradley's Multiple Phoneme Approach (MPA)=
= A behavioraly oriented treatment method that believes all articulation errors should be treated in all sessions; appropriate when making 6+ errors; focuses on sound production in conversational speech; motor-based approach but doesn't emphasize perceptual discrimination training
Baker and Ryan's Monterey Articulation Program=
= A motor based hierachial detailed program using behavioral principles and programmed learning conceps; imitation, repetition and motor practice
McDonald's Sensory-Motor Approach=
= Principles of coarticulation are important in this approach; assumes that the syllable, not the isolated phoneme is the basic unit for speech production
Irwin and Weston's Paired Stimuli Approach=
= Based on principles of behavioral psychology and uses operant reinforcement contingencies; identify a kew word in which a target sound appears once and is produced correctly 9 out of 10 times
List some commonly used motor-based approaches: (Print page 61-62)
- McCabe and Bradley's multiple phoneme approach (MPA)
- Baker and Ryan's Monterey Articulation Program
- McDonald's sensory-motor approach, and Irwin and Weston's paired stimuli approach (PSA).
What is assumed by cognitive-linguistic approaches?
Cognitive-linguistic approaches assume that the child has rule-governed system with specific patterns, but that this system differs from that of the adult system in the child's community. Thus, therapy is geared toward modifying the child's underlying rule system so that it matches the adult standard.
What is the focus of a cognitive-linguistic approach?
establish phonological rules in a client's repertoire; the relationship among sounds
How is treatment completed using a cognitive-linguistic approach? How is it efficient?
The clinician selects sounds or target behaviors called exemplars. The assumption is that tx of these exemplars will facilitate generalization to a whole classes of sounds or other sounds in the same word position. In other words, the goal is to speed remediation through generalization of tx results form a treated sound to untreated sounds
What is used in most cognitive-linguistic approaches?
What are minimal pairs? Give an example. When are they used?
- Minimal pairs are pairs of words that differ by one feature; Shine-pine; bee-beach
- To show the child that sound production affects meaning
List the commonly used cognitive-linguistic treatment programs (print page 67-68)
Distinctive Features Approach (DFA)
Minimal Pairs Contrast Approach
Phonological Knowledge Approach (PKA)
Phonological Process Approach (PPA)
Distinctive Features Approach (DFA)=
- The goal of the DFA is to establish missing distinctive features or feature contrasts by teaching relevant sounds.
- assumes that teaching a feature in the context of a few sounds will result in generalized production of other sounds with the same feature(s).
Minimal Pair Contrast Approach=
- the clinician uses pairs of words that differ by only one feature-the feature the clinician is trying to help the child to conceptualize (e.g., see-tea).
- the child is taught that different sounds signal different meanings.
Phonological Knowledge Approach
- Looks at a child's phonological knowledge
- Based on the assumption that sound productions reflect children's knowledge of phonological rules of the adult system
Phonological Process Approach
based on the assumption that a child's multiple errors reflect the operation of certain phonological rules and that the problem is essentially phonemic, not phonetic
From what broad category is phonological awareness is a subcategory?
Why was metaphon therapy developed?
o In the 1980s, some researchers and clinicians became dissatisfied with the use of minimal pairs in therapy for children with phonological disorders because the use of these minimal pairs was insufficient to produce the desired changes in the children's' phonological systems.
o Metaphon therapy is designed to enhance children's metaphonological skills
What's metaphon therapy based upon?
What is the assumption of metaphon therapy?
Metaphon therapy assumes that children's difficulties do not necessarily lies in the actual motor production of speech sounds but tin the acquisition of the rules of the phonological system.
With whom is the metaphon therapy program appropriately used?
The metaphon therapy approach is often used with preschool children who have moderate to severe phonological disorders.
What is the focus of metaphon therapy?
Metaphon therapy focuses on feature differences between sounds to help children develop an awareness that sounds can be classified by characteristics such as place (front-back), duration (long-short), and others (Bankson & Bernthal, 2004). The therapy consists of several phases.
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