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rugged individualism

The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Hertbert Hoover.

Herbert Hoover

Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.

Franklin Roosevelt

democrat who became United States president in 1933; his program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression became known as the "New Deal" and he remained president through WW II

the dust bowl

In the 1930's A series of major sandstorms that buried houses, destroyed farmland and killed livestock

the new deal

The programs and policies to promote economic recovery and social reform introduced during the 1930s by President Franklin D. Roosevelt

the second new deal

After Roosevelt was reelected, he created new legislation that concentrated on relief and reform. This legislation was called...

Works Progress Administration

May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.

Social Security

federal program (part of the New Deal) of disability and retirement benefits that covers most working people

Agricultural Adjustment Act

(AAA); May 12, 1933; restricted crop production to reduce crop surplus; goal was to reduce surplus to raise value of crops; farmers paid subsidies by federal government; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in US vs Butler on January 6, 1936

Tennessee Valley Authority

A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

Rural Electrification Administration

1935; made electricity available at low rates to American farm families in rural areas

Wagner Act

1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.

Civilian Conservation Corps

1933; New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects

National Recovery Administration

Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.

Glass-Steagall Act

Created the economic barriers existing between commercial/investment banks, insurance companies, and stock brokers so that each area acted independently from one another

deficit spending

government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes

court packing

FDR plan to get his legislation passed, add 6 new cabinet members to Supreme Court to the 9 member Cabinet-ruled unconstitutional

Huey Long

Opponent of Roosevelt, supported socialist program called "Share Our Wealth"

Eleanor Roosevelt

FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women

American Federation of Labor

a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955

Bonus Army

Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash

direct relief

money or food given directly from the gov. to the needy

Hoover Dam

a dam built in the 1930s, with funding from the federal government, to control the Colorado River (provided employment in Southeast)


shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards.

stock market crash

The Stock Market Crash was when, flooded with investments (particularly those buying "on margin, or paying a fraction of the total price or a transaction and the broker lending the trader the rest), the Stock Market crashed after those who bought on margin were forced to either put up more money or sell their stock, choosing to sell. Thousands of people sold their stocks at once, and a financial panic ensued.

Gram Leach Steeley Act

Repealed the Glass-Steagall Act/broke down the barriers the GSA had created

Warren Harding

U.S. president who supported limited amount of government involvement in the economy

Calvin Coolidge

U.S. president who stressed the importance of keeping the government from meddling in the majority of business affairs

Marcus Garvey

leader of the Back to Africa Movement, encouraged blacks to create society free from control of white man

Palmer Raids

A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities

Ku Klux Clan

VIolent racist group which targetted blacks, Jews, and many more, population boomed during 1920's


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, fought to protest racial violence/promote legislation to protect African American rights

18th Amendment

Began Prohibition, banned the sale, consumption, and manufacture of alcohol in the U.S.

21st Amendment

Repealed the 18th Amendment, legalizing alcohol/ending Prohibition

Volstead Act

Established a Prohibition Bureau in Treasury Department in 1919, enforcement proved to be too difficult

Harlem Rennaissance

A literary/artistic movement during 1920's celebrating African American culture

Langston Hughes

Famous poet of Harlem Rennaissance


Helped to connect the country and keep everyone up to date with the news

Silent Movies

Provided entertainment for Americans during the 1920's and 30's

The Automobile

Provided for transportation, making cities more accessible from rural areas, also provided a place for young loves to run away to

The Great Migration

Movement during 1920's in which blacks moved into Northern Cities (led to Harlem Rennaissance)

Sigmund Freud

Austrian psychologist who encouraged Americans to have an uninhibited sex life=more people began having sex


Modern dancers who wore clothing that was quite scandalous and unlike anything that had been seen before

Sacco and Vanzetti

Two Italian anarchists who were put on trial for murder/sentenced to death (received unfair trial due to race/political views)

Quota System

Attempt by U.S. government to limit the number of immigrants who could enter the country


Allowed for modern machinery which could accomplish everyday tasks quite easily, allowing for Americans to have more leisure time

Scopes Trial

Put teacher on trial for teaching evolution, brought about heated controversy over teaching science/religion in public schools

Skirt Length

Got progressively shorter throughout the 1920's, stirred up lots of controversy (at knee by 1929)

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