74 terms

AP US History World War 2

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Neutrality Act
law that kept the US out of WW2
Lend Lease Act
law that said the US can give or sell arms to other nations for the protection of the US from those countries
America 1st Committee
group that favored US neutrality or isolationism
Fascism
form of government that glorifies the state over the individual; demands a strong central government
Totalitarian State
a government that controls all aspects of the people
Inflation
the rate of increase in costs
Adolf Hitler
fascist chancellor of Germany; started the rise of the Nazi Party; broke the Versailles Treaty and pretty much started WW2
NAZI
Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party; party those rose to power in Germany; led by Adolf Hitler
Gestapo
Hitler's personal army; would eventually become the SS
Reichstag
the government building (kind of like the White House and Capitol Building combined) that Hitler attacked and got arrested
Mein Kampf
Hitler's book that is titled "My Struggle"; details his beliefs and what he would do when he gets to power; illustrates his hatred of the Jews, German imperialism; every German family had a copy but never read it
Enabling Act
law that gave Hitler ultimate power to disregard any and every law in order to fix the economy; his approval rate increased due to his success in boosting the economy
Nuremburg Laws
laws that banned Jews from German citizenship; targets were identified (Jews had to wear the yellow Star of David)
appeasement
a compromise where 1 side gets something
German Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
deal between Russia and Germany that split Poland in half; Germany takes west and Russia takes east
blitzkrieg
"lightning war"; tactic to go in with as much force as you can (airforce and tanks)
Maginot Line
series of defenses France put up along the border of Germany; consisted of trenches and bunkers; 60% of France became occupied in less than 1 month
Puppet Government
a government that is controlled by an outside force
Rape of Nanking
the capital of China was invaded by the Japanese; over 50% of the people that lived there were killed either by torture, killing competitions, or rape
Blockade of Japan
impact of the rape of Nanking; the US decided to impose this as well as an embargo to ensure that Japan never hit anyone else like that ever again
USS Arizona
only ship in Pearl Harbor that was not able to be salvaged and repaired; 1,177 men died in this explosion; sunk in 9 minutes; bomb hit engine and artillery room
Doolittle's Raid
1st US raid on Tokyo; showed the US that we were going to come back from Pearl Harbor and fight
Pearl Harbor
Japan's bombing of the US Pacific Ocean naval base; hit us hardcore; December 7th, 1941
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
program that paid factories to change to produce war products
Cost Plus Program
program that paid for materials and the finished product that companies made for the war effort
Ration Cards
these limited what a person could buy; this ensured that there were enough resources for the war
scrap drive
people would donate their scraps of metal for the war effort
victory gardens
gardens that people would grow because of the ration cards; if there was a surplus of food, they would donate the extra to the war effort
GI Bill
this paid vets to go to college and would provide housing
Navajo "Code Talkers"
these people would talk in the Navajo language since it was not a written language; this was useful as the Axis Powers could not translate the code
Tuskegee Air Men
group of all black fighter pilots; their job was to protect big bombers; flew over 200 missions and never lost a bomber; Eleanor Roosevelt convinced her husband to put them into combat
442nd Regiment
combat team that was made up of Asians that volunteered for the military to show their loyalty to America; most decorated combat team in US history; fought in Italy and France
Executive Order 9066
order given by FDR that made all Japanese people live in internment camps
internment camps
camps in the US designed to hold people of Japanese descent
D-Day
battle on the beaches of Normandy; June 6th, 1944; largest amphibious invasion in the history of the world; also known as Operation Overlord
General Eisenhower
man who planned the D-Day invsion; hand delivered several thousand letters that he personally addressed that explained to the soldiers exactly their jobs for the invasion
Atlantic Sea Wall
Germany's defense wall on the French coast; 4 million land mines
101st airborne
group of paratroopers that were elite; their job was to take out the German machine guns and tanks behind enemy lines
Arsenal of Democracy
weapons that were used to fight the Fascists; US gave weapons to democratic nations and Russia
Destroyer Deal
the deal in which the US gave 50 destroyers to Great Britain in exchange for 8 UK bases
Tehran Conference
meeting between Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt; the Big 3 agreed to focus on Germany and then Japan; 1st meeting of the Big 3
Battle of the Bulge
Hitler's last offensive battle; over 10,000 US troops surrendered; Patton drove over 102 miles in 2 days to help support Allied lines; Russia eventually came in and helped
Yalta Conference
2nd conference of the Big 3; they decided what to do with Germany after the war; Churchill and FDR wanted to work with Germany; Stalin=burn/crush Germany; Stalin demanded a buffer between Germany and Russia, aka Poland
Pottsdam Conference
last conference of the Big 3; Prime Minister Clement, President Truman, and Stalin; debated about what to do with Germany; Truman told Stalin about the nuclear bomb
VE Day
May 8th, 1945; Victory in Europe Day; millions of Jews move to Israel and make it a country
Nuremberg Trials
event where the Nazis (mostly concentration camp workers) were put on trial for crimes against humanity; these went on for over a year; several Nazis were executed, some committed suicide, and some escaped to Argentina
Tojo
commander of all Japanese forces; tried to kill himself with an American gun and lived because an American medic saved him; later put on trial and executed; responsible for demanding the Pearl Harbor attack
Douglas MacArthur
US commander of the Pacific; "We are not retreating - we are advancing in another direction" (what a lame coverup)
Bataan Death March
event in which the Japanese marched US POWs to labor camps; they marched over 60 miles in the blazing Filipino summer; there were 80,000 soldiers that were captured
Island hopping
the US tactic of taking over little islands bit by bit to get close enough to bomb Japan
Battle of Midway
battle that was 100% naval; midway between the US and Asia; 6 months after Pearl Harbor; turning point of the war in the Pacific; US cracked the Japanese radio code; US found out about the attack on midway and sneak attacked with aircraft carriers; result was that the Japanese fleet was no longer a threat in the war
Kamikaze
Japanese suicide bombers; they added extra explosives, extra gas, and carried a short sword to take their life
Bonzai Charge
famous attack in which the soldiers attached bayonets and charged the enemy while yelling "Long live the Emporer!" in Japanese
Iwo Jima
battle that took place on a volcanic island; Japanese hid and traveled through cave and tunnel networks; this was where the famous Flag Raising photograph was taken
Marines
main US force in the Pacific; only branch that has been in every major conflict
Battle of Okinawa
largest amphibious assault in the Pacific; more people were killed than Hiroshima and Nagasaki and most casualties were civilians
Harry S Truman
33rd President of the US; succeeded FDR when he died; known for being a Moderate Democrat
Fire bombing
tactic that is essentially napalm; US did this to Japan and ended up destroying 50% of the country; we only lost about 240 airmen in the attacks
Manhattan Project
this event's objective was to create the atomic bomb; had to split an atom in a controlled manner; Einstein came to the US and helped; thousands of scientists came to help; cost $2 billion to make 1 bomb; located in Los Alamos, New Mexico
Major General Groves
military leader of the Manhattan project; created and designed the Pentagon; organzied and ensured efficiency in the project
Dr. Oppenheimer
scientific leader of the Manhattan project; became obsessed with his work and could not handle stress very well; devastated at the results of dropping the bombs; "I am become death, the destroyer of worlds"
Tinian Island
the island the bombers took off of to bomb Japan
Little Boy
the uranium bomb; 1st bomb of its kind to be used in combat; dropped on Hiroshima
Paul Tibbets
man who flew the plane that dropped Little Boy; named his plane, the Enola Gay, after his mother
Hiroshima
August 6th, 1945; Little Boy was dropped and killed 70,000 immediately and then twice that much by radiation and cancer; was targeted because of its poor defense and high population
Fat Man
the plutonium bomb; surrounded by smaller and slower explosives; the US only had enough plutonium to make 1 bomb; we didn't know if it would work or not but decided to go with it anyways; this bomb was two times stronger than the uranium bomb but killed half as many
Nagasaki
place where Fat Man was dropped; US dropped warning pamphlets 3 days before dropping the bomb; 40,000 people were killed; most of the shock was absorbed in the hills and mountains; this place has a higher radiation poisoning
VJ Day
September 2nd, 1945; the Japanese surrender and marked the end of the war; japan has never had a military since; the unofficial surrender was 6 days after Nagasaki
Japanese War Crime Trials
event where many Japanese leaders were put on trial; General Tojo was put on trials; many were tried for the Rape of Nanking as well as bio chemical experiments
Bio-chemical experiments
what the Japanese performed on POWs; purpose was to develop more harmful weapons using nature
German Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
the agreement between Germany and Russia to split Poland
V V
victory in Europe, victory at home; black civil rights movement during the war. The Double V campaign bolstered the spirits of black soldiers and strengthened African American commitments to fighting for equal rights.
Spheres Of Influence
When a country has a geographical influence, like America to Southern American countries
Bloc
a group of nations with similar interests, like the European countries under the influence of communism from Stalin.