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APUSH: Chapter 27
Terms in this set (61)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
war hero and 34th president of the U.S. whose 2term presidency was marked by moderation and stability; nicknamed "Ike"
also "modern Republicanism";
- Eisenhower sought to limit role of president
- relied on Council of Economic Advisers
- staffed administration w/ corporate executives to run gov't like an efficient business
- tried to restrain further growth of federal activities
- wanted to cut spending (only deficit spent in recessions)
- Interstate Highway Act, raise minimum wage, extend social security, create Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
- approved construction of St. Lawrence Seaway
Interstate Highway Act
largest and spendiest public-works program in U.S. history; authorized construction of massive highways
- created jobs
- encouraged suburbanization
- increased reliance on cars
- permitted travelling/road trips
- national security-- could escape easily; also could land planes
- helps trade and interstate commerce
- often went through poor neighborhoods
McCarthy accused the army of harboring communist spies in 1954, and the army charged him with using his influence to gain preferential treatment for a staff member who had been drafted
- led to Senate investigation that revealed him to public
- was censured for contemptuous behavior
Mark I and ENIAC
first computers; devised by the military to improve artillery accuracy
criticized "creeping socialism" of Eisenhower, advocated return to traditional moral standards, condemned Warren court; conservatives like Buclkey and Christian Anti-Communist Crusade
Chief justice who broadened constitutional protections for individual rights
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
May 1954 Supreme Court decision that declared "separate but equal" doctrine unconstitutional; paved way for end of segregation; reversed Plessey v. Ferguson; South wouldn't comply
how did Eisenhower feel about his appointment of Earl Warren?
said it was "the biggest damn fool mistake I ever made"
1956 statement of southern congressmen opposing Brown decision and defending racial segregation; said it was a "clear abuse of judicial power"
Orval Faubus, governor of Arkansas, mobilized the state's National Guard to prevent 9 African-American students from entering Little Rock's Central High School under a federal court order
- instead of accepting integration, just shut down high schools for 2 yrs
John Foster Dulles
Eisenhower's secretary of state:
1) holy war against "atheistic communism"
2) "instant, massive retaliation"
never backing down in a crisis, even at risk of war
instant, massive retaliation
use of threat of nuclear weapons
of captive peoples of Eastern E. and unleashing of Jieshing against Communist China
Eisenhower and Soviet leaders met for 1st East-West conference since WWII; mutual talk of "peaceful coexistence"
- Moscow suspended atmospheric tests, U.S. followed
CIA Covert Actions: Iran
coup to overthrow gov't and replace prime minister w/ Shah Reza Pahlavi b/c of fear that the prime minister might open oil to Soviets
- loyal U.S. ally on Soviet border
- Iranian hatred of Americans
- American oil companies prospered from low-priced oil
CIA Covert Actions: Philippines
intervened in their elections to ensure pro-American gov't
CIA Covert Actions: Guatemala
supported a band of mercenaries that overthrew the elected communist-influenced regime
Eisenhower's belief that if Vietnam fell to communism, other countries would follow suit
National Liberation Front
rising communist insurgency in South Vietnam, supported by North Vietnam gov't
Ngo Dinh Diem
anticommunist Catholic installed by CIA as premier of Vietnam and then president of independent South Vietnam
the Vietminh besieged 12,000 French troops in the valley of Dienbienphu in 1954; French surrendered there
U.S. had offered Nasser to finance a dam to harness the Nile but when he bought arms from Czechoslovakia, Dulles cancelled the loan and Nasser nationalized the British-owned Suez Canal
results of Suez crisis
Britain, France, and Israel coordinated an attack on Egypt w/o consulting Eisenhower, who forced them to withdraw
a) intensified antiwestern sentiment in 3rd World
b) U.S. replaced Britain and France as protector of western interests in Middle East
proclaimed that U.S. would send military aid and troops (if necessary) to any Middle Eastern nation facing threat of "Communist aggression"
Soviets shot down a U.S. spy plane far inside their border; Khrushchev displayed the captured U-2 pilot and photos taken of Soviet missile sites
coalition that, according to Eisenhower, was amassing dangerous power...
a) demands of national security had created the "conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry"
b) warned of rise of misplaced power caused by combination of interests
John Kenneth Galbraith
wrote "The Affluent Society", which was a study of postwar America and reflected American prosperity and the American dream
6) civil rights
sociologist who wrote "The Lonely Crowd"; claimed that new "company people" were "other-directed"; followed the cues of their peers (conformity)
in her "Silent Spring", she exposed the use of the insecticide DDT, fertlizers, herbicides, and pesticides and how they were poisoning the environment and food; banned in many states as a result
labor movement in the 1950s
- AFL and CIO merged
- more workers began to view themselves as middle-class (higher wages, shorter workweek, paid vacations, health care coverage)
- decrease in number of blue collar workers b/c of automation
Alfred and WIliam Levitt constructed many look-alike houses in Long Island suburbs
- migration to suburbs
- embodied American dream for many people
states of the southwestern U.S.; increasingly populous and conservative in the 1950s
- people moved their for pace of life, climate, jobs
- industry moved for low taxes, low energy costs, anti-union and right-to-work laws
- old people and industry brought conservatism to Sunbelt
-increased power of Republican party
enormous population spurt from 1946-1964
- married younger, had babies more quickly
- medicine= plunge in mortality
- school construction and college enrollment boomed
- reinforced woman role in household
Dr. Benjamin Spock
physician and author who, in his "Baby and Child Care", urged mothers to not work outside the home to create an atmosphere of warmth and intimacy for their kids
Hollywood in the 1950s
reinforced steoreotype of woman's role, glorified marriage, depicted white, suburban Americans and avoided controversy
Protestant evangelical preacher and outspoken opponent of homosexuality, communism, and working wives; a part of religious revival
primarily sought security and comfort
many Americans embraced evangelical fundamentalism
Jackie Gleason's situation comedy set in Brooklyn; one of the few that didn't feature suburban, consumer-oriented, upper-middle-class families
"I Love Lucy"
Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz; no network initially wanted the show b/c an all-American redhead was married to a Cuban; even they had a baby and moved to suburbia
3 main TV networks
CBS, ABC, NBC
writers in the 50s
William Faulkner (Southern) "The Town" and "The Mansion"
Eudora Welty (Black) "The Ponder Heart"
James Baldwin (Black) "Go Tell it on the Mountain"
Ralph Ellison (Black) "Invisible Man"
Philip Roth (Jewish) "Goodbye, Columbus"
given by Nixon; saved his political career
in The Other America: Poverty in the United States (1962), he said that the poor lived trapped in a cycle of want and deprivation; illness, poor schooling opportunities, and lack of hope of skills prevented further generations from deviating from this status
civil-rights leader whose refusal to give a white man her bus seat triggered the Montgomery bus boycott
Martin Luther King, Jr.
African-American minister whose emphasis on nonviolence catapulted him to leadership of civil-rights movement
Montgomery bus boycott
50,000 blacks from Montgomery boycotted the buses (in which blacks had to sit in the back) for almost a year, organizing car pools and often walking miles to work
under the Eisenhower administration during the 1953-1955 recession, about 3 million allegedly undocumented Mexican immigrants were deported
guest worker program that brought hundreds of thousands of Mexican laborers to the U.S. in the 50s; reintroduced b/c of demand for cheap labor
League of United Latin American Citizens; middle-class organization that campaigned to desegregate schools and public facilities
1st man-made satellite to orbit the earth; launched by Soviet Union
b) doubling of funds for missile development
c) establishment of Science Advisory Committee
d) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
f) shift of educational focus to science, math, language
National Aeronautics and Space Administration; the Science Advisory Committee created by Eisenhower in response to Russian space achievements led to NASA
the Atlas intercontinental ballistic missile was successfully tested by the end of the decade
"The Blackboard Jungle"
a 1955 movie about juvenile delinquency; when Bill Haley performed "Rock around the Clock" in it, many parents linked rock and roll w/ disobedience and crime
Mississippi-born rock and roll singer beloved among younger Americans in the 1950s
in movie Rebel Without a Cause (1955); many teenagers lifted people like him to cult like statuses for overturning respectable mores
1950s poets and writers who criticized American materialism
Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac
examples of Beats; "Howl" and "On the Road" scorned conformity and materialism of "square" America
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