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IB Geography Case Studies
Terms in this set (49)
Ageing Population: Japan's High Old Dependency Ratio SL
- 20 - 25% of Japan's population is over 65 - Due to following characteristics:
- GDP per capita 38,000 dollars
- Healthier diets - lots of green
- 210 doctors per 1000 people - higher life expectancy 83 years old
- 1.4 Births per woman
- Average age of first marriage increasing
- Marriage rates are falling - gender equality equal (99% of woman literate)
- Higher proportion of women in employment
- High dependency ratio (Increase of 6% in last four years)
- Shortage of economically active
- Cost for providing healthcare + externalities
- Searching for solutions (such as bringing Immigrants for labour purposes)
- Even though the Japanese are working longer, it may have to look outside its borders to prevent future population decline and economic decline. Japan is traditionally a very insular country so allowing large scale immigration would involve huge social and cultural changes.
Youthful Population: Gambia HL
- For every doctor, there are 14,536 patients meaning that the inhabitants don't receive much healthcare.
- Short life expectancy of just 54 years for a man and 57 years for a woman.
- The lack of healthcare available has also meant that there is an extremely high infant mortality rate of 73 per 1000 people, even though it is lower than it has been in the past.
- As many children die at an early age, parents tend to have a large number of children to help with daily tasks, to bring a higher income to the family and to look after the parents when they reach ill health.
- Gambia has a high birth rate of 40 per 1000 people because of this and in 2003, the average fertility rate was 5.13.
- Gambia's population doubles every 28 years and in 2009, it is estimated to be around 1.7million people.
- 63.55% of the population is estimated to be aged below 25 years and only 3.36% of the population is aged over 65 years.
- In the future, it will become harder to find employment and accommodation and even more stress will be put on food resources, the infrastructure and the health service, which is already struggling.
- One of the solutions to the youthful population of Gambia has been "The Gambia Family Planning Radio Project"
Pro-Natalist policies: France SL
- Their current working population ratio is 64 per cent which is low, meaning a slow down in growth as their population is not growing.
- Payment of up to £1064 to couples having their third child.
- Generous maternity grants.
- Family allowances to increase the purchasing power of three child families.
- Maternity leave on near full pay for 20 weeks for the first child to 40 weeks or more for the third child.
- 100% mortgage and preferential treatment in the allocation of three bedroom council flats.
- Full tax benefits to parents until the youngest child reaches 18.
- 30% fare reduction on all public transport for three child families.
- Child-orientated development policies e.g. provisioning of creches, day nurseries etc.
Anti-Natalist policies - China's One Child Policy SL
- Currently in China there are 116 boys to every 100 girls born compared to the world average of 103 boys born to every 100 girls (due to selective abortions)
- This has lead to a large amount of the male population not being married as there are 32 million more males compared to females in their twenties (94% of unmarried people between 28 and 49 are men)
- 15 people 64+ to every 100 20-64, by 2050 there will be 45 people 64+ to every 100 20-64.
- Socio economic problems such as higher taxation, more money spent on public health, loss of youth culture, higher age of retirement and other problems
- Currently 93 per cent of the female population in China is literate and the men are only slightly above at 97 per cent (Female equality leads to less births)
- One child policy (used to) limits the number of children for an urban woman to just 1; however this is less restrictive in rural areas.
= This law was rescinded in October 2015.
Female Education: Afghanistan HL
- Although there is now little difference between the level of female education in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. In parts of South Asia, the Middle East and Central Africa, women still receive significantly poorer education than men.
- 75% of the world's illiterate population are females
- Females are needed to work at home to allow parents to work, or families only has enough to educate one child and will educate males first.
- A belief that the role of females is to look after children and take care of the home and therefore does not need an education.
- The Taliban although stating that they believed in the Islamic belief of education for males and females actually banned females from working, therefore eliminating female teachers and girls ability to get an education.
- Female education effectively ended when females were banned from working. Because girls could not be educated by male teachers, they had no one to teach them.
- Without an education females will find it hard to work, earn money and be self-sufficient.
- They will have little knowledge about family planning and health issues usually leading to higher fertility rates and poorer health.
Mexico - USA Migration SL
- Incredibly high crime rates in Mexico ( Homicide rates come in at around 10-14 per 100,000 people)
- Mexican hope that America is a more stable place to live, with lower crime rates.
- Many Mexican families to struggle, with 47% of the population living under the poverty line. This is motivation for them to move to the US.
- Mexico is a very arid area which suffers from water shortages even in the more developed areas of Mexico. USA general better standard of living.
- Existing migrant communities in states such as Texas and California help to pull people towards migration.
- Many Mexicans can't speak fluent English and studies show that their ability to speak English doesn't improve drastically whilst they live in the US.
-Low income & poor education are factors which can lead to crime.
- It is now common for Spanish to be taught in American schools, widening the skill set of the younger population and improving the potential career opportunities that students may have.
- While legal Mexican migrants are working & paying taxes, they often send money they earn back to their families in Mexico, rather than spending it in America, which can effect the country's economy as there is less money being spent on products which are taxed in America.
Disparities in China SL
- Large areas of the north of China are covered in the Gobi Desert, because of desertification the desert is actually growing south further into China. The south west of of China is largely covered by the Tibetan Plateau (The Himalayas) making agriculture, transportation, construction and communication all hard.
- South east has an extensive coastline make transport and communications much easier. It is also much flatter, has a good water supply (Yangtse and Yellow River).
- Most of China's major cities are located in the east and it is these that have seen the greatest investment in infrastructure and attracted the most investment and therefore seen the largest growth in jobs and economic development.
- Ethnically China is predominantly Han and it is the Han that dominate government. Therefore Han people have often been favoured and minority groups like the Tibetans in the south west and the Uighers in the north west have been marginalised.
Millennium development goals SL
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty
Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
Trading Bloc: European Union SL
- World's biggest trading bloc consisting of 27 member states.
- The EU now covers a population of over 500 million people and accounts for over 25% of global GDP.
- to create a single market where goods, money and people could travel freely between member states.
- The aim of the single market was to promote trade between member countries.
- Through the relaxation of protectionist policies, the free movement of labour and even the removal of exchange rates for Eurozone countries it was believed that all member states would benefit through increased job creation and income.
- The larger economies of Germany and France offer financial support tp to slow growth countries across the EU.
- The common currency has also meant that countries can no longer set their own interest rates which have harmed countries trying to slow growth or increase growth through the use of lowering or highering interest rates
Protectionism: Bananas HL
- World's most popular fruits with 5.4 million tonnes of them eaten in Europe in 2008.
- Grown by countries in the Caribbean, Central America, West Africa and parts of SE Asia.
- Since 1975 Europe gave Caribbean countries and a couple of other former colonies generous import quotas of bananas free from tariffs, with the idea was to support former colonies and reduce the need for aid, by promoting trade.
- Favoring certain countries made Latin American bananas more expensive because they had to pay tariffs despite the fact they should be cheaper to produce on larger plantations dominated by US TNCs (Dole, Chiquita and Del Monte).
- Not everyone was happy about this, especially country's like Germany who had lost all its former colonies, but were still paying too much for smaller Caribbean bananas.
- Because of the EU's hypocritical approach to free trade protests were made by the US and Latin American producers to the WTO. After years of failed negotiations a deal was finally struck in 2009 that would begin the slow reduction of tariffs on bananas. The agreement may hurt some Caribbean and African producers, but should see banana prices fall by up to 12% for European consumers.
Debt Relief - HIPC HL
The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) are poor countries with high levels of debt and poverty. Majority of these countries are located in Africa, with a few in SE Asia and Latin America.
- Initiated by the IMF and World Bank in 1996 after extensive campaigning from NGOs. The majority of the debt relief is coming from the IMF and World Bank to countries who had unstable debts.
- To remain eligible for debt relief countries had to enforce anti-corruption efforts, promote democracy and account for expenditure.
- Nicaragua had unsustainable debt and therefore became eligible to HIPC status. In 2000 Nicaragua received debt relief of nearly $4.5 billion reducing its debt burden as a percentage of export earnings to below 150% and its annual debt service to below 9% of government expenditure.
Soil Degradation and Desertification: Sahel (Sahara desert)
- The Sahel is roughly 5,400km long and covers an area of about 3 million km2.
- The Sahel receives between 200mm and 600mm of rain annually.
- The vegetation is mainly savanna (grassland) with some areas of woodland and shrub land.
- Population Growth (the population of the region is growing at about 3% a year and doubling every 20 years)
- Deforestation (much of it caused by people collecting firewood)
- Overgrazing (some of this is caused by loss of land to National Parks and tourist developments and commercial farms)
- Colonialism - the creation of borders forced people more into villages making them less nomadic and placing greater pressure on the land.
- Rising temperatures (greater evaporation) and reduced rainfall (droughts)
- Storms - the rainfall that does take place tends to be in shorter more intense storms that can lead to water erosion.
- solutions have been suggested to solve the problem of soil degradation and desertification including a giant shelter break (the Green Wall)
Water management: Lake Biwa, Japan HL
- Lake Biwa is the largest freshwater lake in Japan, covering an area of 670km2. It is located on the island of Honshu, north east of the cities of Kyoto and Osaka.
- Between 1945 and 2010 Japan's population grew from 72 million to 128 million. Japan's economy was regarded as an economic miracle, growing at 10% a year in the 1960's and 5% a year in the 1970's.
- The area around Lake Biwa became one of the most densely populated and most industrialized in the country.
- The rapid growth meant that a lot of land reclamation took place around Lake Biwa in order to accommodate new factories, growing cities and to create new farmland.
- Leading to problems such as chemical poisoned and killed aquatic life, as well as heavy metals poisoned and agricultural fertilizers caused eutrophication to take place.
- Responses included "Direction for Safe Use of Agricultural Chemicals", "Pollution Control Ordinance", and an organization to eliminate synthetic detergents.
- It is important to remember that economic growth was and is much more important than taking care of the environment, however as time moved on things changed.
Drought Event: Aral Sea SL
- Once fourth largest inland lake in the world, with a surface area of 68,000km2.
- Since the 1960's the sea has been shrinking because rivers Amu Darya and the Syr Darya had been diverted to irrigate the desert, due to production of melons, rice, wheat and cotton.
- 75% of water gets lost through evaporation or leakage.
- 12% of Uzbekistan's irrigation canals are lined to stop leakage.
- Between 1960 and 1988 the surface of the Aral Sea shrank by nearly 60% and its volume by up to 80%.
- In 2004 the Aral Sea was only 17,160km2 or 25% of its original size. By 2007 it was only 10% of its original size and its salinity had increased to 100 /L
- The rapidly increasing salinity has largely killed the sea's ecosystem.
- The fishing industry has collapsed and residents health worsened due to inhalation of salt, a lack of clean water and food shortages.
Environmental Organisations: CITIES HL
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
- CITES entered force on the 1st July 1975.
- Aims to ensure that the international trade in wild plants and animals did not endanger their existence.
- Participation in CITES is voluntary, but once participation is agreed upon it is legally binding and countries need to adapt their national laws accordingly.
- About 5,000 animals and 28,000 plants are protected under CITES.
- Protected flora and fauna are listed under one of three appendices depending on their level of threat.
- CITES hold meetings roughly every three years to discuss the protection ob new plants and animals.
- At its last meeting, CITES failed in an attempt to ban the trade of bluefin tuna
Conservation strategy: Blue fin tuna HL
- A critically endangered species which can reach weights of 450kg is primarily found in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean - it is now extinct in the Caspian and Black Sea.
- The bluefin tuna is a prized fish and is extremely popular in Japan, thus it has been heavily overfished.
- Estimates calculate that the species has declined by 72% in the Eastern Atlantic and 82% in the Western Atlantic.
- CITES recommended to ban the fishing and international trade of bluefin tuna. Unfortunately many EU countries abstained from the vote so the proposed ban did not pass.
- The bluefin tuna industry is estimated to be worth up to $7.2 billion, with a single fish selling for $396,700 in 2011.
- The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) has attempted to set limits on the amount of bluefin tuna that is allowed to be caught. Their scientists claim that 7,500 tonnes is a sustainable limit, but it is estimated that upwards of 60,000 tonnes are still caught annually. In support of conservation Greenpeace have put bluefin tuna on their red list.
- Further attempts of an international ban will be made through CITES, but if Japanese objections and European abstentions continue, a ban is unlikely.
Sustainable city: Masdar, UAE HL
- Aims to be the world's leading sustainable city and the first to become carbon neutral.
- The project started in 2006 and is estimated to cost $22 billion to build and take eight years to complete (although the current financial crisis has pushed phase 1 completion back to 2015).
- The city will cover and area of 6km2 and be home to about 50,000 people and 1500 businesses. It is estimated that a further 60,000 people will commute to the city daily.
- Producing all of its energy through renewable sources (solar, wind, geothermal and hydrogen).
- Eliminating waste through recycling. Biological waste will be used as fertiliser. Any waste that cannot be recycled will be incinerated to generate electricity.
- Pedestrianising the city and only using public transport within its boundaries.
- Designing buildings that both maximise natural light and allow air to circulate, reducing lighting and air conditioning.
- Educating all citizens every year on sustainability methods.
Desalination of water using solar energy and recycling of grey water for irrigation.
Growing resource consumption: China HL
- China's 1.3 billion people population and rapid economic development and urbanization has meant that it is increasingly demanding more and more of the world's resources.
- China itself only has a finite amount of resources it is looking to other countries and regions to supply it, most noticeably DM of the Congo
- The population is growing and getting richer its is demanding more food (especially meat). This requires ever big areas of land and water to grow the food.
- China's population is rapidly urbanizing so there is growing demand for construction materials like copper and steel
- China's developing population are demanding more luxury products like televisions, washing machines and mobile phones that all require resources to manufacture.
- China has a large manufacturing economy - it is the world's biggest exporter. To maintain its position it needs a reliable supply of resources
- China's economic growth means the demand for fossil fuels is growing.
- Singed 9 Billion dollar deal with Congo
BP Oil Spill - Gulf of Mexico HL
- The largest accidental oil spill in history started on 20th April 2010 with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig.
- The initial explosion killed 11 people. The leak was finally stopped on 15th July 2010. However, in the three months that oil was leaking, it was estimated that 4.9 million barrels of oil escaped into the Gulf of Mexico.
- On the 19th September a relief well was finally completed which permanently stopped any future leaks.
- Attempts were made to disperse and break up much of the oil at sea, but a lot still reached the southern US states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. Tourism, wildlife and fishing were all seriously affected.
- BP (British Petroleum) which owned the drilling rights agreed to pay clean-up costs and set up a compensation fund of $20 billion.
- However, the legal case over responsibility is likely to go on for years because the oil rig that exploded was actually owned by Transocean Limited and some cement work on the well was been carried out by Halliburton Ltd.
Human Induced Hazard: Chernobyl HL
- Ukraine has a population of about 46 million, although this figure is declining because of negative population growth (natural decrease).
- The accident actually happened when scientists at the plant were testing the plants safety procedures.
- Reactor number 4 that experienced the series of explosions releasing radioactive fuel and radioactive material into the atmosphere and surrounding area.
- A lethal dose of radiation is around 500 roentgens over 5 hours, so in some areas workers received lethal doses in minutes.
- Helicopters were used to drop sand, clay and lead onto the reactor, but also firefighters on the ground were used.
- The cloud contained 400 times more radioactive material than the Hiroshima bomb that hit Japan.
- It is estimated that 237 suffered acute radiation sickness and 52 died in the months following the accident. In total 135,000 people were evacuated from the area. The number of cancer cases blamed on the accident range from 2,000 to 100,000.
- It is claimed that the evacuated are has turned into a bit of a wildlife sanctuary with animals adapting and now lynx, boar, wolves, bears, bisons and eagle owl being found in the area
Conservation - Fishing Quotas (EU) HL
- Fish quotas were introduced in the EU because many of the fish stocks in EU waters were falling below unsustainable levels.
- Fishing quotas are simply a limit placed on the amount of fish that different countries are allowed to catch.
- The quotas are calculated each December by the EU Council of Fisheries sets the total allowable catches (quotas). The TACs are based on historical fishing catches, so that each country sees a proportional decline in their fishing quotas.
- Each country within the EU then has the responsibility to monitor the catches an ensure that the quotas are being met
- They help protect critically endangered species like North Sea cod. This ensures the continued biodiversity of our oceans.
- Quotas ensure the long term protection of the fishing industry. It should mean that the tradition of fishing and the related jobs can continue indefinitely.
- Because of fishing quotas many boats are decommissioned. This not only mean fishermen lose their jobs, but also people that repair the boats, sell the fuel and buy and trade the catch.
International Agreement: Kyoto HL
- The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving "stabilization of greenhouse gases concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human) interference with the climate system."
- Initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of July 2010, 191 states have signed and ratified the protocol
- Under the Protocol, 37 countries commit themselves to a reduction of four greenhouse gases and two groups of gases produced by them, and all member countries give general commitments.
- The 37 countries also agreed to reduce their collective greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% from the 1990 level.
Earth Quake Vulnerability: Haiti 2008 SL
- 12th January 2010
- 45,000 dead with 300,000 injured
- Magnitude 7 earthquakewith aftermath of small tsunami killed 3
- Poorest country in the western hemisphere, with 70% of the population on less than 2$ a day.
- Immediate $100m for relief support from US
- 3 million people impacted
- Common consequences (resources, infrastructure, disease, economy)
Rainforest National Parks: The Tumucumaque National Park HL
- Located in the Amazon Rainforest in NW Brazil.
- Declared a National Park on 23rd August 2002. It is the world's biggest tropical rainforest national park covering an area of 38,874km2.
- Area is rich in biodiversity including rare animals like jaguars and tapirs.
- Although Brazil's national parks are protected by law many still suffer from illegal logging, mining and hunting.
- The government department in charge of protecting the parks are underfunded and don't even have adequate vehicles to survey the park.
- National Parks are very important in attempts to protect biodiversity and indigenous groups, but they can also give rainforests an economic value through tourism.
- If you kill and animal or fell a tree you only receive money for it once. However, if you can encourage tourists to view the animals and vegetation you can create ongoing income.
Ocean Earthquake Vulnerability: Indian Ocean 2004 SL
- 7:59am hit, with Tsunami 40 minutes after killing 250,000 in 14 countries
- Major damage to infrastructure, especially since areas around are LEDC's.
- In Indonesian island Sumatra alone, 500,000 people left homeless.
- Foreigners, Youth and Old left vulnerable as knowledge was poor around the region with lack of warning
- - Common consequences (resources, infrastructure, disease, economy)
- Over 7$ billion provided for aid and 5 million people relocated to refugee camps
Recycling: Lichfield HL
- Lichfield is a small city of about 30,000 people situated in central England about 20km NE of Birmingham
- Successful recycling of about 50% of its waste, due to many factors.
- About ten years ago, all households were given four bins (two green, one brown and one black).
- Paper, card, plastic, glass and metals either get crushed, melted or pulped and reused. Organic waste get used for compost.
- As well as household collections, all supermarkets were set up with recycling centres for paper, glass, plastics, metals and clothes. Also a central recycling centre was established for more dangerous recyclable waste; oil, rubble (construction material) and electrical goods.
- To maximise recycling households and pupils were educated on the importance of recycling. Involving students hopefully creates lifelong recyclers.
Reducing Disparities: Starbucks HL
- The largest coffee house company in the world, with 20,891 stores in 62 countries
- In 2005, at the time when the coffee consumption exponentially increased
- the price of coffee bean decreased because of over supply so that farms got under bankrupt
- To get stable supply of coffee beans withright quantity and right price
- Due to oversupply of low grade coffee• Thus farmers suffer from low, even negative profit,not covering its cost of production, going bankrupt• When stable supply of high quality coffee beanswas essential to support explosive growth of SBUX
- From farmers to StarbucksStable supply of coffee is critical, as a starting point to deliver its value tothe customers and to sustain high growth rate.
- 75,000 people and 200 farmingcommunities were supported inIndia and Guatemala
Drought Event: California SL
- State uses most water in the US
- Average 181 gallons per person, compared to national average 80-100 gallons
- Majority of water use due to irrigation of crops 60%
- On January 17, 2014 California State Governor, Jerry Brown, declared a drought state of emergency and cut water use by 20%
-California's 2014 Water Year, which ended September 30, 2014, was the third driest in 119 years of record. It also was the warmest year on record.
- Shasta Lake Reservoir Located in Shasta County, Shasta Lake is the largest manmade reservoir in California, with a capacity of 4,552,000 acre-feet.
- Increased demand for release of water from Lake Powell on the Arizona-Utah border to Lake Mead, America's largest reservoir.
Renewable Energy: Three Gorges Dam (HEP) SL
- The Three Gorges Dam is the world's largest HEP and is located on the Yangtse river in central China.
- The Three Gorges Dam is over 2km wide, 100 metres high and 100 metres thick. The reservoir behind the dam is over 600km long and discharges over 700 cubic kilometres of water annually.
- The dam has 26 turbines and generates up to 18,000 MW annually.
- It will protect over 10 million residents downstream from the risk of flooding.
- It means China can reduce its dependency on oil. China suffers greatly from air pollution.
- Construction, running and maintenance has created thousands of jobs and increased skill levels.
- The increased river traffic is blamed for the extinction of the Yangtse river dolphin. The Yangtse alligator is also threatened along with the giant sturgeon which can not reach its breeding grounds.
- The flooding of the reservoir forced over 1.3 million people to be relocated.
- It has cost as much as $70 billion to build.
- The relocation of 1.3 million people has caused deforestation to take place higher up the valley sides.
Tropical Storms: Hurricane Katrina SL
- Category 5 hurricane from Aug 20-30, 2005
- ≈ 2,000 fatalities, with 200,000 homes destroyed 800,000 displaces.
- 25.7% of Louisiana is below poverty line and 80% of New Orleans is below sea level.
- History of racial segregation, thus poor lived in poor quality areas which often experience flooding.
- Inadequate prevention was built with over 50 failures of levees and flood walls.
- Predicted level 2 magnitude turned level 5 overnight.
- 85% of population evacuated with last minutes going to the Superdome.
- 500 different organization's provided emergency help.
- Levee and Floodwall system restored, but not improved, leaving future at risk
- Water from Mississippi river diverted to rebuild wetlands
Rural-Urban Migration in Brazil SL
- Low paid agricultural jobs, loss of jobs because of mechanization, lack of services (schools, hospitals, water supply, electricity) loss of land, poor quality housing, etc.
- Prospect of better jobs (factories), better entertainment, better services, more housing, etc.
- It is one of Brazil's largest settlements with a population of approximately 11.7 million people.
- Millions of people have migrated from Brazil's rural areas to Rio de Janeiro. 65% of urban growth is a result of migration.
- Some of these settlements may be 40 or 50 km from the city centre (on the edge of the city), along main roads and up very steep hillsides.
- Problems may include: unemployment, shortage of houses, pressure on schools and hospitals, shortage of water and electricity, congestion and pollution.
Typhoon Haiyan SL
- 8 Nov, 2013 Category 5 Philippines
- Impacted 16 million, killed 6,000 and left 27,000 injured
- The United Nations fear that the possibility of the spread of disease is high due to the lack of food, water, shelter, and medication.
- Casualties were reported as a result of the lack of aid in affected areas
- The economic impact is estimated at $2.9 billion?
- The Philippine government estimated that about 71,000 hectares of farmland were affected; $85 million was lost from farm damage.
- Environmental devastation and loss of forests, trees and widespread flooding.
- Lack of sanitation in days following the event also leads to a higher level of pollution.
- The United Nations has admitted its response to the typhoon disaster in the Philippines had been too slow, amid reports of hunger and thirst among desperate survivors.
Landlocked Countries: Nepal HL
- Bottom 10% global GDP ranking, GDP is about half that of countries which have access to the sea
- India is Nepals sole transit neighbor, meaning they can block Nepals borders or adapt policies to restrict trade.
- Nepal receives 80% of its imports from India.
- Due to mountainous areas flight transportation is not easy or cheap
- 10 year long civil war meant economic growth was damaged, meaning it was not easy especially for agriculture since geographical characteristics were tough.
- Political instability has lead to poor levels of private investment and distribution of public goods.
- Agriculture accounts for 75% of the labour force and contributes to 37% of Nepal's GDP.
- Dependence on primary sector makes developing the economy a difficult task.
- Globalisation unlikely to improve defender due to to trade locking its resource dependency rather than opening opportunities for growth.
- UN project Nepal wont focus on: gender equality, education, improved sanitation.
Internet Development: Facebook African Deal HL
- Partnership with Eutelsat, a French satellite internet operator
- Initiative would offer free services such as weather, news, health, and Facebook itself.
- Would impact areas of West, East and Southern Africa, meaning the most populous areas, with 14 countries total
- Aim to address barriers that exist in connecting the people in Africa to the world
- Service sector in Africa has a lot of potential, however lack of technology needs means many cannot develop.
- Facebook would offer package for free, with bonuses requiring subscription fees.
Use of ICT in a Developing Country: China HL
- 22.5million users in 2000 compared to the 384 million in 2009
- Under the age of 19 = 33% use ICT / 20-29 = 29.8 use ICT / Over 50 = 5.7% use ICT
- 155 million Internet users from Rural areas
- Online shopping rose by 87.9 million
- From 2008 to 2009, increase of 26.3% in Rural areas
Use of ICT in Developed Country: United Kingdom HL
- 70% of total population connected to Internet
- Due to high reliance on service sector, people find internet to be a necessity
- 52% of those without formal qualifications use Internet
- 3 million customers use ICT under 2mbps, changed in 2012 with all under having high speed broadband
- Use of Internet for those over 50 is 50%, with those 25-49 at 52%
Forced Migration: Iraqi Refugees
- Iraq has seen a flow of refugees from its borders over the last 100 years. However, since the American led invasion of 2003, the number of refugees leaving Iraq and also the number of IDPs within Iraq has increased rapidly.
- It is estimated that since 2003, about 2.2 million Iraqi's have left the country and a further 2.5million have fled internally.
- Most refugees have escaped the ongoing fighting between coalition troops and remnants of Saddam Hussein's government, but others are escaping terrorist attacks (Al Qaeda has infiltrated Iraq) and political, ethnic and religious persecution.
- The majority of refugees have moved to neighbouring countries (Syria and Jordan), where there are similarities in language and religion and they are easily accessible by land.
- Refugees can encounter many problems including; no job, no housing, no money, shortage of food and water, no clothes and a lack of safety. Children are also taken out of school and many people can suffer from psychological and physical problems living in temporary conditions.
- Many charitable organisations aim to help refugees and IDPs, but the organisation that coordinates most responses are the UNHCR.
Time-Space Convergence HL
- Airbus A380
- Worlds largest airplane as of Oct 2007
- Allows for a max total of 555 people on board (average of 375)
- 171 total worldwide planes
- 105 million passengers on 280,000 flights
- Up to 17 hours max flight time
Growing wealth of people HL
- Growing Russian tourism in Spain
- 70% of Russians end up visiting Spain
- 750,000 yearly
- 40% increase since 2011
- Ukraine has impacted destinations of Russians
- 50 million total Russians go on Holiday
- Increase in local tourism industry as well since Russia is a very large country, done through Infrastructure improvements and events such as Formula One
Sustainable Tourism: Cambodia Angkor Wat and Siem Reap HL
- In 1993, the GNP per capita of Cambodia was less than $650 per annum
- Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge regime lead to debilitating civil war and brutal genocide in the 1970s.
- Approximately 30% of the entire population died
- From those first elections in 1993, when overseas arrivals numbered just 118,000, the sector now brings in over 3.5 million tourists per annum
- In 2012 overseas visitors brought $2.2 billion into Cambodia, which means the tourism sector accounted for nearly 15% of the country's GDP
- Authorities estimate that tourist trade receipts will double to $4.5bn per annum, with at least 7 million foreign visitors expected to visit Cambodia every year by 2020.
- GNP per capita has nearly quadrupled since 1993 (see Figure 2), and now stands at $2,490, with nearly a third of people continuing to live on less than a dollar per day
- The ancient temple of Angkor was home to more than one million people.
- Angkor Wat became a World Heritage Site in 1992
Sustainable Tourism: Cambodia Angkor Wat and Siem Reap 2 HL
- World Heritage Convention 1972: Conservation and protection of community and infrastructure
- Wooden walkways, metal railings and staircases, Limiting access, Challenging looters.
- UNESCO warned that the temple complex at Angkor could reasonably handle a maximum of 700,000 visitors a year.
- However, in 2012, there were nearly 3 million visitors to Angkor
- Access should be restricted to a maximum daily admittance rate.
- infrastructure has struggled to keep up with the number of hotels and guesthouses surged from eight to over 350 in just over a decade.
- Even in Siem Reap about 90% of hotels are foreign-owned
- A 2005 World Bank report found a critical problem
in energy, sewage and refuse facilities
- Produced a free guidebook called Stay Another Day, which advises people how they can best contribute towards sustainable development and poverty reduction in Cambodia, a form of educating people
- McDonald's is the World's largest hamburger chain. It has over 33,000 restaurants in 119 countries and serves an estimated 68 million customers daily.
- McDonald's now employs over 1.7 million people and has revenue in excess of $24 billion. McDonald's became a listed company in 1965 and the "Big Mac'' first appeared three years later in 1968. McDonald's first oversea restaurant opened in Canada in 1967, the second country it opened in was Costa Rica in 1970. The UK did not get a restaurant until 1974.
- About 15% of all restaurants are owned directly by the corporation, while the rest operate as franchises or part franchises (affiliates). Franchises pay the McDonald's Corporation franchise fees, marketing fees and rent - normally all based on profits.
- McDonald's first drive "thru'' was opened in 1975. To compete with the growth of coffee shops McDonald's launched McCafe in 1993. McDonald's has also opened restaurants with playgrounds for children and McExpress's and McStop's which are aimed at customers on the move with limited time. McDonald's has also adapted it restaurants to suit local tastes (glocalisation) e.g. halal meat in the Middle East or kosher meat in Israel and no beef in India.
Namibia's community conservancies SL
Three core issues are discussed, namely: devolution of rights over wildlife and tourism to communities; establishment of tourism Joint Ventures; and the impacts of tourism at local, national, regional and international levels. To understand the context of sustainable tourism development, the case study examines theories relevant to the support and sustenance of tourism within local community contexts. Such theories include Common Property Resource Theory and Practice, Social Exchange Theory, Social Representations Theory and Community Participation Theory.
-empowering communities to make their own decisions regarding sustainable utilisation of their natural and cultural assets;
-providing rights and tenure over natural resources through the promulgation of a tourism policy to enable communities to earn an income and other related direct or indirect benefits;
-the accruing benefits from the allocation of hunting quotas to local communities and other commercial products derived from community forests;
-the exponential growth of conservancies which has increased opportunities for employment, training, capacity building and other economic prospects for the locals; and
helping in tackling HIV issues during community gatherings by educating communities about the AIDS pandemic.
Coca Cola HL
World's largest soft drinks company. It now sells products in over 200 countries and its range has increased (over 3,500 different beverages) to include products like Sprite, Fanta, Inka Cola and water like Joy.
- Coca Cola now has over 146,000 employees worldwide.
- In 1919 the company was bought off Asa Candler by Ernest Woodruff. Woodruff''s son Robert was a very clever marketer and introduced Coca Cola to the Olympics in 1928.
- Post WWII Coca Cola grew even more expanding into over 120 countries. In the 1960's new products like Sprite were launched along with the first can.
- To this day Coca-Cola continues to expand its products range (through acquisition and development). It also increased its marketing through international sporting events and teams.
- Bangladesh is located in South Asia. On three sides it is surrounded by India and on the fourth is the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh has a population of 156 million people, a population density of 1099 square kilometres and a GDP per capita of only $1900.
- 70% of Bangladesh is less than 1 metre above sea level
- In 1989 the government of Bangladesh began working with a number of international agencies to produce the national Flood Action Plan (FAP). The plan contained 26 proposals that were hoped would reduce the problem of flooding in the future.
- The 1998 flood left Over 57% of Bangladesh's land surface was flooded, over 1,300 people were killed, 7 million homes were destroyed making 25 million homeless
- Long term aims to reduce rates of deforestation in the Himalayan foothills, build seven large dams - cost up to $40 million and construction up to 40 years, 5000 flood shelters
and 350km of levees (embankments)
Volcanoes: Mount St. Helens
- Mount St. Helens is located in the Cascades mountain ranges which is part of the North American Rockies. It sits on a destructive plate boundary (convergent plate boundary) where the Pacific plate and Juan de Fuca plate subduct under the North American plate.
- Mt St. Helens had been dormant for nearly 120 years when on the morning of 18th May 1980 a 5.0 earthquake triggered a huge landslide and pyroclastic flow.
- The pyroclastic flow travelled for 25km and flattened everything in its path. Ash and gas continued to be released from the volcano over the course of the day and reached the east coast of the US three days later.
- Sixty one people lost their lives in the tragedy, mainly residents refusing to leave and scientists monitoring the volcano. Spirit lake was destroyed along with 250km of fishing rivers. 250km2 of forest was destroyed and 10 million trees had to be replanted. No animals survived in the blast zone and many crops were destroyed by falling dust.
International Participation and Success: Jamaica
- Jamaica has a population of only 3 million and a GDP per capita $8400. However, it has a largely high number of successful sprinters, two of the most famous are Usain Bolt and Merlene Ottey.
- Usain Bolt is the world record holder for 100 and 200 metres and the current Olympic Champion at both events. The 4X100 metre relay team with him in it also won gold.
- Many questions have be asked why this is the case. The answer is probably a combination of reasons, One genetic reason might be a higher number of fast twitch muscles, but it can't be the only reason.
- Other reasons include the setting up of a competitive college athletics system 30 years ago, along with the introduction of better coaches and scouts. Scouts looked for raw talent that could be coached.
- Jamaica now also has the tradition and role models and it is an escape from crime and poverty - Jamaica has the third highest per capita murder rate in the world.
International sports event - London Olympics 2012
- Although London was chosen as the host city for the 2012 Olympics, it is not possible for all events to take place in Central London.
- Within London most events are concentrated in East London in the borough (district) of Newham. Newham is going to be home to the Olympic Village. Newham was selected because it gave the borough a chance to be regenerated and had a large area of available land.
- Now though with the arrival of the Olympics areas of brownfield land have been cleaned and built on and residents are finding jobs in construction and Olympic preparation.
- The UK has a successful track record of hosting major sporting events, it hosted the European football championships in 1996 and the Commonwealth Games in 2002.
- The bid team used local residents to further their course and to show that it had the backing of the local population. Thirty of the final 100 bid team in Singapore for the vote were local Londoners.
- London has a good rail network. Newham is connected by the underground, overground, mainline rail, Docklands light railway and Eurostar.
- New venues will cost £3.1bn, There will be £1.7bn spent on regeneration and infrastructure.
- Organisers say 75% of all tickets will cost less than £50 and offer free travel on London transport.
National sports league - The English Premier League
- The Barclays Premier League was established in 1992. It replaced League One which was formed in 1888.
- The Premier League has 20 teams, with three teams being relegated and promoted each year. This makes it different to many leagues (NHL, NBA, Super 15's) which operate franchise systems with no relegation or promotion.
- The league season consists of each team playing each other home and away (38 matches in total). There are no play-offs, the team to finish at the top of the league are crowned champions. The top four team qualify for the lucrative European competition, the Champions League.
- The Premier League is the most watched league in the world, watched by half a billion in 202 countries. It is also the world's richest league generating about $3 billion in income during the 2009/10 season.
- Since 2004 the Premier League has been sponsored by Barclays, so that it why it is often referred to as the Barclays Premier League. The television revenue for the Barclays Premier League is huge, rights for 2010-2013 were sold for $2.7 billion. Extra revenue came for selling overseas rights, highlight rights and internet rights.
- Looking at the list of Premier League clubs above, a city needs a population of about 250,000 to support a Premier League football club. Wigan, Norwich and Swansea all noticeable exceptions. There are also some big cities in England that don't have Premier League football teams; Derby, Nottingham are a couple, but even more noticeable are Sheffield (535,000), Leeds (770,000) and Bristol (420,000).
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