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Unit 4: early astronomy and solar system test
Terms in this set (25)
What is the structure of a geocentric solar system? Which early astronomers supported this structure?
What is the structure of a heliocentric solar system? Which early astronomers supported this structure?
Geocentric: everything orbits earth (earth=center)
Supporters: aritotole, Claudios Ptolemy, tycho Brahe
Heliocentric: everything orbits the sun (sun=center)
Supporters: Aristarchus, Copernicus, tycho Brahe, Kepler
What is retrograde motion? How did Ptolemy explain retrograde motion?
What is the REAL reason why retrograde motion is observed?
Retrograde motion: The temporary reversal of direction
Ptolemy: the planets actually reversed (epicylce)
Real: appear to reserves because of the revolution rates around the sun are different
What are Johannes Kepler's 3 laws of Planetary Motion? What does each law state about planetary motion?
1. Law of ellipses: planets don't orbit in perfect circles
2. Law of equal areas: each planet sweeps out equal areas in a griven length of time-- planets don't orbit at constant speeds
3. Law of orbital harmony: the squared of the orbit period of a planet is equal to cube of the average distance from sun-- the amount of time it takes for a planet to complete one orbit = the distance the planet is from the sun-- P2=d3
What is eccentricity? How does Earth's eccentricity effect our observations of the sun? What is perihelion?
What is aphelion? At what times of the year does Earth experience perihelion/aphelion?
Eccentricity: how offset the sun is from a planet
The Suns size would change
Perihelion: close to sun- winter
Aphelion: far from sun-- summer
What were Galileo's significant contributions to Astronomy?
He developed the first telescope and that helped him discover jupiters moons.
What is Newtons Universal Law of Gravitation and how does it relate to planetary motion?
Every body in the universe attracts every other body. This relates to planetary motion because each planets has gravitational pull and pulls the other planets to it (sun) and the moon.
What is an Astronomical Unit? What is it used for?
The unit of measurement for astronomy. To measure the distance between earth and the sun
Know definitions and characteristics of: nebula, solar nebula, planetesimals, and protoplanets
Be able to explain the stages of the nebular hypothesis.
Nebula, fusion, planetesimals, protoplanets, solar system
Be able to describe the differences between the 4 Inner Planets and the 4 Outer Planets.
Inner-- terrestrial, rocky, closer to sun,
Outer--jovian, gassy, farther away from sun, rings,
Understand the characteristics of the 4 inner planets and how their formation influenced the
characteristics they have.
mercury: largest temp swings, no constant magnetic field, metallic core, looks like the moon--greatest temp swings because no atmosphere and closest to the sun
venus: rotates clockwise, thick atmosphere made of co2, one day is long than one year--retrograde rotation because of a collition early on that sent it spinning the other way.
earth: oceans of liquid water, atmosphere helps shield us from dangerous radiation, moderate atmosphere, geologically active-- moderate atmosphere due to the thickness of the atmosphere and how close we are to the sun
mars: largest volcanos and canyons in the solar system, made up of red rock with high iron content, axis tilt the same as earths---canyons formed when the surface pulled apart volcanos formed because the martian surface doesn't move so the hot spots in the center of the planet keeps building up in the same place instead of the earth where the surface moves so it makes multiple small volcanos
Understand the characteristics of the 4 outer planets and how their formation influenced the
characteristics they have.
jupiter: largest planet, fastest rotation rate, giant hurricane, 4 major moons: ganymede, callisto, europa, io,--
saturn: most complex ring system--
uranus: axis of rotation is tipped on its side -- impacted
neptune: great dark sport--
What is the definitional difference between "planet" and "dwarf planet" and "plutoid"? What are the names
and locations of the objects currently classified as dwarf planets in our solar system?
dwarf planet: an object with an unclear neighborhood
planet: object with a clear orbiting neighborhood
plutiod: dwarf planet.
pluto: kuiper belt
ceres: astroid belt
How is "orbital period" defined? Does a planets rotation relate to it "day" or "year"?
orbital period: the time it take for the plant to orbit once around the sun
How is "rotation rate" defined? Does a orbital period relate to it "day" or "year"?
rotation rate: the time it takes for a planet to rotate around its axis once
Understand what planetary processes shape the surface/features of Earth. Be able to explain how our
understanding of Earth processes/features is used to develop inferences about the formation of features on
other terrestrial objects (i.e Olympus Mons and Valles Marineris on Mars).
planetary processes: tectonics- canyons , water-- water erosion and ice ,wind, vocanism and imapct cratering
Since some of the things we see on earth are similar to the things we see on other planets we know that they are caused by similar things.
Why is Mercury the most heavily cratered planet in the solar system?
Because it doesn't have an atmosphere so the impactor will not dissolve at the surface, brake up, or slow down.
What is unique about the atmosphere of Venus?
Thick carbon dioxide atmosphere-- traps heat-- making the planet the hottest planet in the solar system
Which planet rotates on its side?
Which planet has a giant storm called a Great Red Spot?
What characteristics make life possible on Earth?
water and the temperature consistency
Which planet is nicknamed the "Red Planet"
What planet has the largest system of rings?
Which planet is the largest?Smallest? Fastest orbiting? Fastest rotating? Slowest rotating?
fastest orbit: mercury
fastest rotation: jupiter
slowest rotation: venus
Be able to identify and describe the major moons in our solar system (Phobos, Deimos, Io, Europa, Ganymede,
Titan, and Triton) including which planets they orbit.
Phobos: MARS-- very irregularly shaped (captured astroids?)
deimos: MARS-- very irregularly shaped (captured astroids?)
Io: JUPITER-- Most volcanically active object in the solar system
Europa: JUPITER-- Frozen crust, likely large water ocean under crust
ganymede: JUPITER-- largest moon in the solar system
titan: SATURN-- atmosphere like earths early atmosphere
Triton: NEPTUNE-- has an atmosphere with icy geology
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