Who: Term coined by John O'Sullivan, exhibited by President Polk
What: Widely held westward policy that the US will be destined to spread/expand across the continent; God's plan, inevitable, duty
When: Term coined in 1845 (after end of Market Revolution, 1840)
Where: US, expansion in the West
Why: Showed ideas of white superiority and American exceptionalism; Whites should expand across the continent, even at the expense of other people. Uprooted many Indian tribes. Westward expansion causes included desire for mineral resources (Gold Rush), ideological motivations (God-given right to expand, white superiority over Indian land), and religious purposes (Mormons fleeing persecution, Christian missionaries seeking converts, Oregon Trail
Ext. Expansion was seen as destined by God / duty to God, which was like the early English Puritan/Pilgrims' motivation to colonize.