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Child Development Final
Terms in this set (71)
Which one of the following pairs of children best illustrates a difference in temperament?
Carol is very social and outgoing; Chris is more quiet and reserved around peers.
The primary goal of many research-based programs to foster emotional development for children is to:
teach children to accept and learn to cope with both positive and negative emotions
Three of the following strategies should help young children with healthy attachments to a caregiver. Which is NOT consistent with recommendations presented in the textbook?
When parents divorce, suggest that one parent become the primary nurturer and that the other one act more as an occasional "playmate"
On his first day at a new preschool, 3-year-old Kegan's attention is immediately attracted to a wooden train set on the far side of the room. But no sooner has he begun to play with that train than a large teddy bear catches his eye, and he seems unconcerned when his mother leaves the room. Kegan continues to flit from one toy to another all morning without getting any very involved in any one of them. He hardly reacts when Mom returns a couple of hours later. Kegan's behavior is most consistent with a(n):
When a new child care provider picks up 11-month-old Ceci for the first time. Ceci screams hysterically and struggles to get away. Which one of the following is the most likely explanation for Ceci's behavior?
She is showing stranger anxiety, which is common at the end of the first year
Which one of the following situations is the best example of parallel play?
John and Joey sit next to each other beside a pile of blocks. Each one is building a tower and occasionally watching what the other is doing
A community of learns can best be described as:
A classroom in which a cooperative spirit of having one another learn prevails
Three of the following teachers are socializing their students in ways that schools typically do. Which teacher is not socializing students in a typical fashion?
Ms. Dobson suggests that Sean bang his fist on his desk few times whenever he gets frustrated
Researchers look at a variety of factors when they evaluate the quality of child care centers. Which of the following are they least likely to look at?
The ethnic and racial makeup of the children
If you wanted to develop an effective after-school program for elementary school students, you would be least likely to:
Build activities exclusively around topics children are studying in school
Three of the following statements describe possible effects of television viewing on children's development. Which statement is not necessarily true?
Watching television more than five hours per week has a negative impact on IQ
What did Erik Erikson believe?
people grow from life's challenges
What was Erikson's theory?
people undergo eight "crises" addressed in the form of psychological stages between birth and old age
What are the eight stages of Erikson's theory?
1. trust versus mistrust (infancy)
2. autonomy versus shame and doubt (infancy)
3. initiative versus guilt (pre-k years)
4. industry versus inferiority (elementary years)
5. identity versus role confusion (adolescence)
6. intimacy versus isolation (young adulthood)
7. generativity versus stagnation (middle age)
8. integrity versus despair (retirement years)
a sense of being able to handle problems on their own
a pattern of working hard, gaining mastery in tool use, and persisting at lengthy tasks
mixed feelings about the specific ways in which they fit in society
making a betterment towards society; productivity
being self-centered or unable and unwilling to help others
an enduring emotional tie that unites the child to a caregiver and has far-reaching efforts on his or her development
When does preattachment take place?
birth to 6-12 weeks
When does attachment-in-the-making take place?
6-12 weeks to 6-8 months
When does clear-cut attachment take place?
from 6-8 months up to a year and a half after birth
fear incited by an unfamiliar adult
When does reciprocal relationship take place?
1 1/2 years to 2 years of age
infants exhibit this attachment when they see their caregivers as a secure base, showing signs of distress when they leave and when present, talk and continue playing with toys
Infants who exhibit this attachment are when they seem oblivious to the caregivers presence, failing to greet them and may look away when reunited and are independent to their business
infants who exhibit this attachment are when they seem preoccupied with their caregivers yet are not easily comforted when returned to them, being distress and angry when parents return
infants who exhibit this attachment are more serious, lacking in a coherent way of responding to worrisome events, being calm one moment and angry the next and sometimes interrupting their own actions
disorganized and disoriented attachment
What is the primary basis of attachment and security?
the relationship between caregiver and child
What qualities do caregivers who are sensitively engaged show?
1. consistent response to needs
2. regular expressions of affections
3. openness to babies influence
What were some strengths to Erikson's theory?
- emphasizes social and emotional changes that occur
- reflects synthesis of characteristics, maturation, etc.
What were some limitations to Erikson's theory?
- observations are largely anecdotal
- theory based on men and boys
- underestimates effects of culture
What is preattachment?
using social signs to elicit care
What is attachment-in-the-making?
singling out special people who regularly provide care
What is clear-cut attachment?
protesting at separation, seeking for comfort
What happens with multiple attachments?
initial preference towards one caregiver, but soon welcomes the other as a second attachment
In preschool, what does secure attachments predict?
independence, empathy, and social confidence
In elementary, what does secure attachments predict?
self-confidence, school adjustments, relationship with teachers and peers, success at tasks, and graduation
What do attachment theorists believe?
secure bonds help children form positive, self-fulfilling expectations about other people
How do early attachments affect children through learned emotional responses?
With secure relationships, children can be soothed
With insecure ones, they can't be settled down
the feelings, both psychological and physiological, that people have in response to events that are personally relevant to their needs and goals
the ability to moderate affective states such that feelings are experienced authentically and expressed according to both personal needs and social conventions
self-conscious emotions are:
guilt, embarrassment, and pride
What is emotional contagion?
when one does something, others join in
How does emotions differ with gender?
Boys show more anger whereas girls show more positive emotions and sadness
strategies that facilitate effective interaction with others
failure to engage in any activity, either with out without another individual, quiet sitting and staring
absorption in one's own playthings, apparent lack of awareness of other children's presence
unobtrusive observation of other children's play activities
playing next to another child but with little or no interaction
some talking and sharing of objects with another child, occasional comments about what another child is doing
active sharing of toys and coordination of activities, taking on specific roles related to a common theme
What are some benefits of having peers?
offer emotional support, help build social skills, contribute to sense of identity, etc.
What are some infancy social skills?
shared focus of attention, smiling, imitation, offer toys, assisting one another, seek and offer comfort
What are some early childhood social skills?
playing in groups of 2 or 3
What are some middle childhood social skills?
group activities, conforming to social norms, managing conflicts and cooperation
What are some early adolescence social skills?
reliant on peers for support and recreation, increased group division by race or ethnicity
What are some late adolescence social skills?
fewer groups, greater ability to see others as individuals, more flexibility in selecting friends
What personal characteristics affect early interactions?
shyness, irritability, and impulsiveness
How does gender play a role in social skills?
Play in same-gender groups
How can family and the environment affect social skills?
Middle-class and working-class in good neighborhoods can create good social skills whereas lower-class and dangerous neighborhoods restrict that
children who are well-liked by numerous peers
children who are frequently excluded by peers
a group of children whom age-mates rarely selected as peers they would nighter most-like or least like to do something with
youngsters who are very well liked by some peers and intensely disliked by others
liked by some, not liked by others, but without intensity find a comfortable social niche
cohesive group characterized by initiation rites, distinctive colors, and symbols, alleged ownership of a territory, feuds with one or more rival groups, and criminal activity
a group that resists the dominant culture by adopting a significantly different way of life
a classroom arrangement in which students help one another achieve common learning goals
community of learners
when someone expects to achieve and it is achieved
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