Visual Art Foundation Final
Terms in this set (83)
What are the basic elements of art and design?
What is a line?
one of the simplest and most versatile elements of design
How can a line be defined?
-a point in motion
-a series of adjacent points
-a connection between points
-an implied connection between points
What are the 3 types of line orientation?
What do diagonal lines suggest?
dynamic; suggest action and movement
What do horizontal lines suggest?
suggest stability and status
What do vertical lines suggest?
suggest potential change, depending on their context
What are the 3 types of actual lines?
What are contour lines?
lines that define the interior and exterior edges in a composition
What are calligraphic lines?
flowing, expressive lines; derived from the Greek words for beautiful and writing
What are organizational lines?
lines used to create the loose, linear "skeleton" on which a composition can be built
What are implied lines?
lines that suggest connections without actually being drawn; the viewer must become actively involved in compositions that are constructed using implied lines
Why are line networks used?
add detail and creation illusion of volume and space
What is hatching?
straight parallel lines
What is cross-hatching?
a more complex network of lines
What are cross-contours?
lines that "map" surface variations across shapes or objects
What is a shape?
a flat, enclosed area
How can shapes be created?
-enclosing an area within a continuous line
-surrounding an area by other shapes
-filling an area with solid color or texture
-filling an area with broken color or texture
What is volume?
a three-dimensional enclosure; a square is a shape, while a cube is a volume
What is gradation, or shading?
a continuous series of values that are used to suggest volume and create the illusion of light; used to make a two-dimensional shape appear three-dimensional, or volumetric
What is a positive shape, or figure?
a shape distinguished from the background
What is a negative shape, or ground?
the area around a positive shape
What is figure/ground reversal?
an arrangement in which positive and negative shapes alternately command attention
What are the 4 types of shapes?
What are rectilinear shapes?
composed from straight lines and angular corners
What are curvilinear shapes?
dominated by curves and flowing edges
What are geometric shapes?
crisp, precise edges and mathematically consistent curves
What are organic shapes?
visually suggest nature or natural forces
What are the 3 degrees of representation?
What are nonobjective shapes?
pure forms; shapes created without direct reference to reality
What are representational shapes?
derived from specific subject matter and based on direct observation
What are abstract shapes?
distilled or transformed from visual reality, reducing their resemblance to the original source
What is texture?
the visual or tactile quality of a two- or three-dimensional form
What are the 3 types of texture?
What is physical texture?
actual variations on a surface
What is visual texture?
an illusion created using multiple marks or through a descriptive simulation of physical texture
What is invented texture?
a form of visual texture that has been created without reference to perceptual reality
What is trompe'oeil?
a visual texture that is created to so resemble reality that it "fools the eye"
What is value?
the relative lightness or darkness of a surface
What can value be used for?
to create the illusion of space, suggest volume, shift compositional balance, and heighten emotion
What is contrast?
the amount of difference in values
What are attached shadows and cast shadows used for?
use value to make a two-dimensional form seem three-dimensional, or volumetric
What is atmospheric perspective?
a way to create space using value; dark, crisp shapes tend to advance spatially, while gray, blurry shapes tend to recede
What is design?
to plan and/or combine multiple parts into a harmonious whole using the elements and principles of design
What is composition?
the combination of multiple parts into a unified whole
What are the principles of 2D design?
unity and variety
scale and proportion
What are the cornerstones of composition?
unity and variety
What is unity?
similarity, oneness, togetherness, or cohesion
What is variety?
What is the Gestalt theory of visual psychology?
visual information is understood holistically before it is examined separately
What are the 6 essential aspects of Gestalt?
What is grouping?
visual organization based on similarity in location, orientation, shape, color, etc.
What is containment?
a unifying force created by the outer edge of a composition or by a boundary within a composition
What is repetition?
the use of the same visual element or effect over and over
What is proximity?
the distance between visual elements; close proximity helps increase unity
What is continuity?
the degree of connection or flow among compositional parts; skillful use of continuity can add visual movement to a design
What is movement?
creates deliberate visual pathways and helps direct the viewer's attention to areas of particular interest
What is closure?
the mind's inclination to connect fragmentary information to produce a completed form
What is a pattern?
created when a visual element is systematically repeated over an extended area
What is a grid?
created through a series of intersecting lines
What is a function of patterns and grids?
to increase compositional unity
What is balance?
the equal distribution of weight or force among visual units
What is visual weight?
-the inclination of shapes to float or sink compositionally
-the relative importance of a visual element within a design
What are the 3 types of balance?
What is symmetrical balance?
a form of balance that is created when shapes are mirrored on either side of a central axis, as in a composition that is vertically divided down the center
What is approximate symmetry?
a form of balance that occurs when roughly similar imagery appears on either side of a central axis
What is radial symmetry?
a form of balance that is created when shapes or volumes are mirrored both vertically and horizontally, with the center of the composition acting as a focal point
What is asymmetrical balance?
equilibrium among visual elements that do not mirror each other on either side of an axis
What is proportion?
refers to the relative size of visual elements within an image
What is scale?
refers to the size of a form when compared to our own human size
What is rhythm?
a sense of movement created by repetition of multiple units in a deliberate pattern
What is emphasis?
special attention given to some aspect of a composition to increase its prominence
What is a focal point?
a compositional device used to create a primary point of interest, used to create emphasis
What is form?
the physical manifestation of an idea or emotion
What is subject?
the person, object, event, or idea on which an artwork is based
What is content?
the emotional and/or intellectual meaning or message of an artwork
What is critique?
any means by which the strengths and weaknesses of designs are analyzed
What is objective criticism?
used to assess how well a work utilizes the elements and principles of design
What is subjective criticism?
used to describe the personal impact of an image, the narrative implications of an idea, or the cultural ramifications of an action; generally focuses on the subject and content of the design
What is a stereotype?
a fixed generalization based on a preconception; stereotypes are often used to create the bridge on which visual communication depends
What is a cliche?
an overused expression or a predictable treatment of an idea
What does a shift in a stereotype or cliche do?
upsets our expectations and challenges our assumptions
What is appropriation?
the reuse of an existing artwork, often used to create a connection between past and present cultural values