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### Which of the following is not an example of a source of systematic risk?

foreign competition with an industry's products

examples of: interest rate changes

changes in the overall economic outlook

changes in the inflation rate

### Beta is defined as

a measure of volatility of a security's returns relative to the returns of a broadbased market portfolio of securities.

### Recalling the meaning and calculation of beta, a security that is completely uncorrelated (ρ = 0) with the market portfolio would have a beta of

0

### What will happen to the Security Market Line if: (1) inflation expectations increase, and (2) investors become more risk averse?

shift up and have a steeper slope

### In order to completely eliminate the risk (i.e., a portfolio standard deviation of zero) in a two-asset portfolio, the correlation coefficient between the securities must be ____.

equal to -1.0

### In the ____, the expected return on a security is equal to the risk-free rate plus a single risk premium that is equal to the product of the expected rate of return on the market portfolio less the risk-free rate times the sensitivity of the security's returns to the market return.

Capital Asset Pricing Model

### ____ can be achieved by investing in a set of securities that have different risk-return characteristics.

Diversification

### Sally's broker told her that the expected return from her portfolio was 14.2%. If 40% of her securities have an expected return of 10.3 percent and 20% have an expected return of 12.8 percent, what is the expected return of the remaining portion of her portfolio?

Solution:

14.2%-0.4(10.3%)-0.2(12.8%)=0.4X

X=18.8%

### If the return on U.S. Treasury bills is 7.02%, the risk premium is 2.32%, and the inflation rate is 4.16%, then the real rate of return is:

Solution:

7.02%-4.16%=2.86%

### The yield to maturity on ACL bonds maturing in 2005 is 8.75 percent. The yield to maturity on a similar maturity U.S. Government Treasury bond in 7.06 percent and the yield on Treasury bills is 6.51 percent. What is the default risk premium on the ACL bond?

Solution:

Risk premium=8.75%-7.06%=1.69%

### AKA's stock is currently selling for $11.44. This year the firm had earnings per share of $2.80 and the current dividend is $0.68. Earnings are expected to grow 7% a year in the foreseeable future. The risk-free rate is 10 percent and the expected market return is 14.2 percent. What will be the effect on the price of AKAs' stock if systematic risk increases by 40 percent, all other factors remaining constant?

Solution:

Old ke=0.10+Betaj(0.142-0.10)=0.10+0.042Betaj

P=$0.68(1.07)/(0.10+0.042Betaj-0.07)=$11.44

Bj=0.80

New ke=0.10+0.8(1.4)(0.042)=0.147

P=$0.7276/(0.147-0.07)=$9.45

A decrease of $1.99 a share

### HDTV has planned on diversifying into the dual-VCR field. As a result, HDTV's beta would rise to 1.6 from 1.2 and the expected future long-term growth rate in the firm's earnings would increase from 12% to 16%. The expected market return, km, is 14%; the risk free rate, rf, is 7%; and the current dividend, Do, is $0.50. Should HDTV go into the dual-VCR field?

Solution:

kold = .07 +1.2(.14-.07) = .154

knew = .07 +1.6(.07) = .182

Po = .50(1.12)/(.154 - .12) = $16.47

Pn = .50(1.16)/(.182 - .16) = $26.36

###
The decision by the Municipal Transportation Authority to either refurbish existing buses, to buy new large

buses, or to supplement the existing fleet with mini-buses is an example of:

mutually exclusive projects

### If a firm sells an asset for less than its book value,

the loss may be used to offset operating income

### In terms of the capital budgeting process, net cash flows are

incremental changes in a firm's cash flow.

### The capital budgeting process is very important to the firm because it:

essentially plots the company's future direction

###
The set of investment projects arranged in descending order according to their expected rates of return is

known as the ____.

simplified capital budgeting model

###
What is the net investment for an extruder that costs $42,000, if shipping costs are $1,500 and installation is

$4,800? Assume this efficient machine is replacing an older extruder with a book and market value of zero.

The replacement investment will reduce operating costs by $6,600 a year.

Solution:

NINV=$42,000+$1,500+$4,800=$48,300$48,300

###
Capital Foods purchased an oven 5 years ago for $45,000. The oven is being depreciated over its estimated

10-year life using the straight line method to a salvage value of $5,000. Capital is planning to replace the oven

with a more automated one that will cost $150,000 installed. If the old oven can be sold for $30,000, what is

the tax liability? Assume a marginal tax rate of 40 percent

Solution:

Book Value=$45,000-5($45,000-$5,000)/10=$25,000

Tax liability=($30,000-$25,000)(0.4)=$2,000$2,000

###
Outback is purchasing a new machine that will cost $98,000. The machine will qualify as MACRS 5-year

property but has an economic life of 8 years. The new machine is expected to increase revenues by $35,000

per year and operating costs are expected to increase by $15,000 per year. If the firm's marginal tax rate is 34

percent and the first year's depreciation rate is 20 percent, what is the net cash flow in the first year.

Solution:

NCF = ($35,000 - $15,000 - $19,600)(1 - 0.34) + $19,600 = $19, 864

$19,864

###
Allen Company is considering an investment project that is expected to generate $100,000 in annual earnings

before taxes. Annual depreciation will be $50,000. Allen's marginal tax rate is 40%. Determine the project's

annual net cash flows.

Solution:

NCF = ΔEBT (1 - T) + ΔDep

= $100,000 (1 - 0.40) + $50,000 = $110,000

###
Ripstart is replacing an old, fully depreciated stamping line with a more efficient machine that will cost

$245,000. The line will be depreciated as a 7-year MACRS asset. With the increased production, Ripstart

expects revenues to increase by $55,000, and operating expenses to increase by $20,000. If Ripstart expects to

sell the new machine at the end of year 5 for $40,000, compute the net cash flow in the fifth year. The

MACRS depreciation rate during the fifth year is 8.93% and the accumulated MACRS depreciation after five

years totals 77.69 percent of the cost of the asset. Assume the firm's marginal tax rate is 40 percent and that

company does get to take the full benefit of year 5 depreciation.

Solution:

Dep5 = 245,000(0.0893) = 21,878.50

Book value at the end of year 5 = $245,000 - $245,000 (0.7769) = $54,659.50

NCF5 = ($55,000 - $20,000 - $21,878.50)(1 - 0.4) + $21,878.50 +$40,000

+ ($54,659.50 - $40,000)0.4 = $7,872.90 + $61,878.50 + $5,863.80 = $75,615.20

###
Anderson Clayton will purchase a new pellet mill that replace an older, less efficient, mill. The new mill costs

$360,000 and shipping costs are $10,000. Improving the steam lines to the new mill will cost an additional

$22,000. The old mill has a book value of $25,000 and can be sold for $12,000. The installation of the new

mill will cause inventories to increase by $8,000, accounts receivable will go up $20,000, and accounts

payable will increase $10,000. If Anderson Clayton has a marginal tax rate of 40%, what is the NINV for the

new mill?

Solution:

Installed cost $392,000

Less: salvage - 12,000

Less: tax savings on sale - 5,200

Add: increase in NWC 18,000

$392,800

###
A Lotta Bread Corp. is replacing an entire baking line that was purchased for $420,000 and currently has a

book value of $60,000. The new, more efficient line, will cost $940,000 installed and can be depreciated as a

7-year MACRS asset. With the increased efficiency, Lotta expects annual revenues to increase by $425,000,

and operating expenses to increase by $170,000. The older machine, which was being depreciated at the

straight-line rate of $20,000/year, will be sold for $30,000. What are the net cash flows for year 2? Assume

the firm's marginal tax rate is 40% and that the year 2 depreciation rate is 24.49%.

Solution:

Year 2 depreciation = $940,000(0.2449) = $230,206

Change Dep (Yr. 2) = $230,206 - $20,000 = $210,206

NCF2 = ($425,000 - $170,000 - $210,206)(0.6) + $210,206

= $237,082

###
Com-Cat is considering expanding their current production facility. This year Com-Cat had an operating

income (EBIT) of $760,000, interest expenses of $120,000, depreciation expenses of $45,000, and capital

expenditures of $160,000. Next year, after the expansion is completed, operating income is expected to be

$880,000, interest expenses will remain at $120,000, but depreciation will increase to $61,000. To support the

expansion, cash is to expected to increase by $5,000, accounts receivable by $12,000, inventories by $8,000,

and accounts payable by $7,000. What is the change in Com-Cat's net operating cash flows attributable to this

project, if the tax rate is 40%?

Solution:

NCF = ($880,000 - $760,000)(1 - 0.40) + ($61,000 - $45,000)

- ($5,000 + $12,000 + $8,000 - $7,000) = $70,000

###
A contractor has a team of plumbers and assigns those plumbers to a new construction site. The fact that the

plumbers are unavailable for any other job makes the construction site project a/a

mutually exclusive project

###
The payback method is at best a crude measure of the risk of a project because it fails to consider the ____ of

a project's returns.

variability

### The disadvantages of the payback approach include:

cash flows after the payback period are ignored in the calculation

payback ignores the time value of money

payback fails to provide an objective decision-making criterion

### Which of the following is not a technique to handle the capital rationing problem?

ranking projects according to payback

### If the net present value of an investment project is positive then the:

project's rate of return is greater than the firm's cost of capital

### When dealing with ____ cash flows, the ____ is computed by trial and error.

uneven; internal rate of return

### The ____ of an investment is the period of time for the ____ to equal the initial cash outlay.

payback period; cumulative cash inflows

###
The ____ approach takes into account both the magnitude and timing of cash flows over the entire life of a

project in measuring its economic desirability.

internal rate of return

###
An investment project requires a net investment of $100,000. The project is expected to generate annual net

cash inflows of $28,000 for the next 5 years. The firm's cost of capital is 12 percent. Determine the net

present value for the project.

Solution:

NPV = 28,000(PVIF0.12,5) - 100,000 = $28,000(3.605) - 100,000 = $940

###
Using the profitability index, which of the following mutually exclusive projects should be accepted?

Project A: NPV = $6,000; NINV = $50,000

Project B: NPV = $10,000; NINV = $120,000

Project C: NPV = $8,000; NINV = $80,000

Solution:

PIA = $56/$50 = 1.12

PIB = $130/$120 = 1.08

PIC = $88/$80 = 1.1

Therefore, choose project A

###
GoFlo is a small growing firm that is considering the purchase of another truck to serve GoFlo's expanding

customer base. The new truck will cost $21,000 and should generate annual net cash flows of $6,000 over the

truck's 5-year life. What is the payback period for this project?

Solution:

PB = $21,000/$6,000 = 3.5 years

###
ZPS Models is considering a project that has a NINV of $564,000 and generates net cash flows of $105,000

per year for 10 years. What is the NPV of this project if ZPS has a cost of capital of 12.45%?

Solution:

NPV = -$564,000 + $582,503 = $18,503 (by calculator)

###
What is the internal rate of return for a project that has a net investment of $169,165 and net cash flows of

$25,000 in the first year and 40,000 in years 2-7?

Solution:

IRR = 12% (calculator)

###
Indexx, a maker of disease-detection systems based on biotechnology is considering purchasing some

diagnostic equipment that costs $380,000. Shipping and installation costs will be an additional $30,000. The

equipment will be depreciated based on a 3-year MACRS life. Revenues from the new equipment should be

$400,000 the first year and increase 15% each year over the expected 5-year economic life. Operating

expenses should be $250,000 the first year and these expenses will increase 10% each year. At the end of 5

years the equipment will be obsolete and have no salvage value. Should Indexx invest in this new equipment?

Assume Indexx has a cost of capital of 15% and a marginal tax rate of 40%. Use the depreciation schedule

listed below:

(3 Year Depreciation Schedule: 33.33%, 44.45%, 14.81%, 7.41%)

Solution:

NCF1 = (400,000 - 250,000 - 136,653)(.6) + 136,653 = $144,661

NCF2 = (460,000 - 275,000 - 182,245)(.6) + 182,245 = $183,898

NCF3 = (529,000 - 302,500 - 60, 721)(.6) + 60,721 = $160,188

NCF4 = (608,350 - 332,750 - 30, 381)(.6) + 30,381 = $177,512

NCF5 = (699,603 - 366,025)(.6) = $200,147

NPV = -$410,000 + $144,661(0.870) + $183,898(0.756)

+ $160,188(0.658) + $177,512(0.572) + $200,147(0.497)

= $161,296

###
G-III Apparel is considering increasing the size of a warehouse. The cost of the expansion is $825,000 and the

increase in inventories and accounts payable will be $410,000 and $360,000 respectively. G-III expects that

the expansion will increase net cash flows by $150,000 a year for the next 5 years and $200,000 a year for

years 6-12. G-III has a 14% cost of capital and a marginal tax rate of 35%. What is the NPV of the warehouse

expansion?

Solution:

NPV = -$825,000 - $410,000 + $360,000 + $150,000(3.433) + $200,000(5.216 - 3.433) +

$50,000(0.270)

= $10,050

###
What is the net present value of the following project if the required rate of return is 15%? The initial

investment is $150,000

Years Cash Flows

1 $30,000

2 $80,000

3 $100,000

4 $200,000

$116,681

###
Should the following project be accepted if the cost of capital is 12%?

Initial Investment is $50,000

Years Cash Flows

1 $25,000

2 $35,000

3 $55,000

Yes, because the internal rate of return is 48% which is more than 12%.

###
Creative Furniture is considering two mutually exclusive projects that would automate part of their production

facilities. Project A costs $120,000 and would produce net cash flows of $37,000 annually for 5 years. Project

B also costs $120,000 and will produce annual net cash flows of $25,000 for 10 years. Creative's cost of

capital is 11 percent.

Using a replacement chain, which project should be chosen? Assume that in 5 years, Project A will still cost

$120,000 and produce 5 more years of $37,000 annual net cash flows.

Project B. NPV is $492 higher

Solution:

NPVB = -$120,000 + $25,000(5.889) = $27,225

NPVA = -$120,000 - $120,000(.593) + $37,000(5.889) = $26,733

NPVB - NPVA = $492

###
Dorati Inc. is considering two mutually exclusive projects. Dorati used a 15% required rate of return to

evaluate capital expenditure projects. If the two projects have the costs and cash flows shown below, using a

replacement chain determine the NPV for each.

Year Project S Project T

0 -$70,000 -$100,000

1 $50,000 $ 60,000

2 $60,000 $ 70,000

3 $ 80,000

4 $ 90,000

Assume in two years Project S will still cost $70,000 and produce the same two years of cash flows.

Solution:

NPVT = -100,000 + 60,000(.870) + 70,000(.756) + 80,000(.658)

+ 90,000(.572) = $109,240

NPVs = -70,000 - 70,000(.658) + 50,000(.870) + 60,000(.756)

+ 50,000(.658) + 60,000(.572) = 40,000

###
Toy Manufacturers (TM) is considering two mutually exclusive machines to use in its manufacturing process.

The net cash flows for each are given below:

Year Axa Beta

0 -$90,000 -$105,000

1 45,000 35,000

2 45,000 35,000

3 45,000 35,000

4 35,000

5 35,000

If the cost of capital for TM is 13%, which machine should they purchase?

Solution:

NPVA = $-90,000 + $45,000(2.361) = $16,245

NPVB = $-105,000 + $35,000(3.517) = $18,095

EAAA = $16,245/2.361 = $6,881

EAAB = $18,095/3.517 = $5,145

NPVA = $6,881/0.13 = $52,931

NPVB = $5,145/0.13 = $39,577

###
Marvec needs to replace an extruder and two replacements look good. Extruder A costs $102,000 and has a

10 year life. Extruder B costs only $56,000 but its expected life is 6 years. Extruder A will generate net cash

flows of $17,600 per year for 10 years and B will generate net cash flows of $13,800 per year for 6 years. If

Marvec's cost of capital is 11%, which extruder should be chosen and what is its NPV? Use equivalent annual

annuities.

Solution:

NPVA = $-102,000 + $17,600(5.889) = $1,646

NPVB = $-56,000 + $13,800(4.231) = $2,388

EAAA = $1,646/5.889 = $279.50

EAAB = $2,388/4.231 = $564.41

NPVA = $279.50/0.11 = $2,541

NPVB = $564.41/0.11 = $5,131

### The discount rate used in calculating the certainty equivalent net present value is the

risk-free rate

### Which of the following techniques can be used to analyze total project risk?

net present value/payback approach

risk-adjusted discount rate approach

simulation analysis

### The net present value/payback approach is a useful approach when

screening projects characterized by rapid technological advances

###
Sensitivity analysis is a procedure that can be used in the capital budgeting process to indicate how sensitive

the ____ is to changes in a particular variable.

net present value

###
The most expensive method of adjusting for total project risk in the evaluation of capital budgeting projects is

the

simulation approach

### The certainty equivalent factors used in capital budgeting analysis are equal to the ____ divided by ____.

certain return; risky return

### The ____ of a firm is a weighted average of the ____ of the individual assets in the firm.

systematic risk; systematic risk

###
SCAN is a multi-divisional utility company. SCAN has four divisions with the following betas and

proportions of the firm's total assets:

Division Beta % of Assets

Electric & Gas 0.85 60

Bus transportation 0.95 10

Real estate 1.40 25

Recreation 1.15 5

The risk-free rate is 8 percent and the market risk premium is 5 percent. If SCAN is considering a residential

development, what should the firm use as its cost of equity in evaluating this project?

Solution:

ke = 0.08 + 1.40(0.05) = 0.15 or 15%

###
The Chris-Kraft Co. is financed entirely with equity and the firm has a beta of 1.6. The current risk-free rate is

9.5 percent and the expected market return is 16 percent. What rate of return should Chris-Kraft require on a

project of average risk?

Solution:

ke = 0.095 + 1.6(0.16 - 0.095) = 0.199 or 19.9%

###
IKON is financed entirely with equity and its beta is 1.31. If the current risk-free rate is 6.25% and the

expected market return is 12.8%, what is IKON's required rate of return on a project of average risk?

Solution:

ke = 6.25 + 1.31(12.8 - 6.25) = 14.83%

###
The Chris-Kraft Co. is financed entirely with equity and the firm has a beta of 1.25. The current risk-free rate

is 7 percent and the expected market return is 15 percent. Chris-Kraft is considering an investment project

with a risk that matches the firm's average risk, requires a net investment of $70,000, and has net cash flows

of $18,000 per year for 8 years. Should Chris-Kraft invest in the project?

Solution:

ke = 0.07 + 1.25(0.15 - 0.07) = 0.17

NPV = $18,000(4.207) - $70,000 = $5,726

###
M-tel is financed entirely with equity and the firm's stock has a beta of 0.85. M-tel is considering investing in

a project that is expected to have a beta of 1.3. The project requires an initial outlay of $6 million and is

expected to generate after-tax net cash flows of $1.3 million each year for 8 years. Calculate the NPV of the

project. Assume the risk-free rate is 7% and the expected market return is 14%. (Note: Problem requires either

calculator use or interpolation from the tables. The suggested solutions use calculator accuracy.)

Solution:

ke = 7% + 1.3(14% - 7%) = 16.1%

NPV = -$371,484 (calculator accuracy)