HS3016 — Full — Societies in Comparison

Terms in this set (40)

To understand how these social and cultural answers develop, we need to consider 5 basic components that are present in every human society.

(1) Population or the collection of physical individuals (bodies). There are 3 components to this:

— [Genetic constants]: traits that are the same for every society and every generation like basic needs, physiological resources (eyes, ears, etc, even reflexes to extreme heat). We are thus [motivated to optimise pleasurable experiences and minimise painful and unpleasant experiences]. These constants also allow for us to revert to similar symbol systems because of our physiological resources (lips, tongue, brain, speech control). We also inherit powerful emotions and appetites inherited from distant prehuman ancestors.

— [Genetic variables] refer to things like race and sex differences, taste sensitivity, etc. Direct impact may have limited importance, but their indirect effects (sociocultural responses such as ethnic stereotyping, prejudice) have often been substantial. These days, cultural adaptation (e.g. suntan oil) help to circumnavigate the biological adaptation.

— [Demographic variables] refer to how certain clusters of genes vary from one society to another that may impact life expectancy at birth, etc.

(2) Culture refers to the society's symbol systems and information they can convey
E.g. Language, symbols, norms, ideology, values
— Biophysical environments may be similar, but the culture may differ. And the culture influences different aspects of the same demographical features (meanings of race, gender).
Important becausee* they're like the foundation laid by a previous generation that enables the future generation to [address new challenges instead of working on the same ones]. The continuing expansion of old symbol systems and the creation of new ones have steadily increased the capacity of human societies to handle information.

(3) Material products refer to the things people produce or obtain through trade.
— May vary vastly despite commonalities
— Can also be known as [material culture]

(4) Social organisation refers to the networks of relationships among members of a society.
— Organises society into predictable relationships
— There are also [cultural influences] in systems of social organization

(5) Social institutions refers to combination of (1) to (4).
- These are the structures in society, manifested as groups of social positions and associated social relations
— [Function]: Maintain and carry out essential social functions and perpetuate the social order
Need to understand that there isn't clear cut features of categorisation; some areas they may resemble more of societies outside their category than those inside, etc. But *we categorise because distinctions reflect
real and important differences* but we recognize that the characteristics of groups in a category are not identical, just like in age categories.

(1) Hunting & Gathering societies
— from human beginnings to 8000B.C.
— hunting wild animals, birds or fish
— Gathering wild foodstuffs (nuts, fruits, berries, roots, seeds)
— Few roless* to take, mostly on the basis of age, sex, kinship status
Nomadic and egalitariann*
— Small group size

(2) Horticultural (simple and advanced)
8000B.C. to 3000B.C., with advanced horticultural emerging in the last 1000 years
Cultivationn* of land for food instead of passively relying on land for their basic necessities
— Use of hand toolss* only
— More sedentaryy*, hence they had more possessions
Semi-nomadic and may be egalitarian, ranked, or stratifiedd* depending on amount of surplus
— Groups of 100 to several thousands of individuals

(3) Agrarian societies (simple and advanced)
— Emerged about 10,000 years ago, 3000B.C. to 1800A.D.
— Depend on farming using ploughs, draft animals, irrigation, or machineryy*. This sort of tech gave rise to different social organisations and relationships among people
— Society based on possessions as status symbols
Individual ownershipp* of resources
— Much occupational specialization
— Usually stratifiedd* with multiple social classes
— Live in groups consisting of thousands of individuals or larger Sedentary living (towns and cities)

(4) Industrial societies
— Started about 400 years ago
— Depend on mass production/factories (began rapid development with industrial revolution in England in 1600's)
— From agriculture to manufacturingg* (crop rotation, steam power, specialized labor, spinning wheel)
— Massive increases in productivity, surplus, population, settlement size, etc.
— Increased division of labor

These days you also have industrializing societies, etc, or societies that are a hybrid as well
Types of societies:
(1) Bands which consists of 30-50 people and are typically smaller because they don't have the mechanisms to hold a larger society together (government, education). Band membership was fluid because there was alikelihood of being absorbed by another band, and band identity isn't rigid.
Social organisationn*: personal kinship relationships
Movementt*: Nomadic / semi-nomadic hunter/foragers with a tendency to have a permanent base or moved according to the seasons
Division of labourr*: Gender and age
Conflictt*: Rarely external, spent more time and energy socialising and building up

(2) Tribes are collectives of bands or lineage groups, each with a similar language and lifestyle, occupying a distinct territory. They're often made up of 100-500 individuals, making movement more challenging and thus have a slant towards [horticulture]. Due to its size, bands allow for better survival and division of labour.
Movementt*: Nomadic / semi-nomadic villages
Division of labourr*: Gender and age, more stratified due to size
— More status differencess* between individuals in these societies
— May have limited horticultural and pastoral economy

In terms of leadership, they tend to be led by a headman or big man depending on the culture, who's role is to be generous, settle disputes, and to form consensuses. Headmen are entitled to polygyny and family members may be first for food allocation. They are not elected by birth and did not fight for the position, but emerged because of their ability by having [1] skills that the group wants or that [2] they're charismatic.

In terms of economics, they go by a system of reciprocity—people exchange things of similar value that needs to be established over time. The principle of reciprocity guides distribution and exchange. There's also a generalisation of reciprocityy* which means that people distribute whatever they have found regardless of whether they know the person or not.

In terms of religion, they practice animism: the belief that all things have spirits and therefore, they have a sort of respect towards things in their lives. They also participate in ancestor worship.
(1) The practice of horticulture forced people to stay in one place for extended periods which led to more permanent settlements. In most areas (except middle east, although unexplained), simple horticulturalists usually have had to move their settlements every few years. This led to larger settlements and denser populations.
Resultt*: people accumulated more possessions than ever before, with more diversity in terms of weapons
Resultt*: dwellings became more substantial, some buildings contained several rooms and a small courtyard. Materials such as sun-dried clay blocks were capable of lasting as long as 2 generations.
Resultt*: Appearance of religious shrines / ceremonial centres

(2) Growth of trade and commerce as a result of [1] increase in occupational specialisation (at least at chief commercial centres) as well as their [2] locations.
because of the locations they were in. Even in remote villages, there is evidence of trade: shells from the Mediterranean have been found in the sites of horticultural villages and in graves in northern Europe, etc.
But this growth was limitedd*, because families mostly produced nearly everything they used

(3) Increase in Warfare — in horticultural era, there's evidence of arms in the graves of adult males, reflecting the impact of technological advance (metallurgy in particular). Causes are unclear, although it may have been due to an increase in free time for men as a result of economic surpluss*, lack of hunting, increase in wealth in the form of cattle, or there's a fight of rights as horticulturalists deplete the source of game.
— Greater warfare also resulted in female infanticide.

In short, the adoption of horticulture in the realm of technology was comparable to the adoption of symbol use in the realm of communication: each was a decisive break with the mammal and private world. But the most fundamental change of food production is the creation of a stable economic surplus. Such economic surplus opened up important new possibilities for the organisation of societal life.

This led to:
• the ability to support non-producerss* of food

• concentration of occupational specialisation

• emergence of governmental or religious institutionss* staffed by full-time officials and priests
• emergence of full-time artisans and merchants
• development of cities

In full, the development of stable economic surplus meant:
— Paved the way for growth in the size of societies
— Formation of multicommunity societies
— Increased division of labour
— Urban communities
— Increased trade and commerce
— Formation of the state
— Greatly increased inequality

But there was a need to make sure that growth in productivity did not get consumed by growth in population. This required an ideology that would motivate the producers of food to turn over part of their harvest to an individual authority who dispensed it as he saw fit. This came in the form of [1] offering sacrifices and [2] turning the food over to the headman for distribution.
Technology of horticulture:
— Swidden cultivation
— Division of labour: men clear land and women are responsible for planting, tending, harvesting crops

Population and economy
— Average number of 1,500 people (simple) + 5,0000* (advanced) giving them substantial advantage over competing H&G societies
— Larger populations result in the emergence of multicommunity societiess* united under a single leader.
—— These multicommunities demonstrate that the subsistence technology allowed for a production of stable and dependable economic surplus.

Invention of food production: independent food production in seven regions of the world, sites of early food production
Middle east, Northern/Southern China, Sub-saharan African, Central Mexico, South central Andes, Eastern United States
No communication between the different regions because there's no way to travel
These are the places that independently developed food production technology that is historically and socially significant
(1) Food production involves domestication of wild plants and crops
(2) Involves domestication of animals as well - hunting is food collection, but raising + breeding them is domestication
All these places had had food production emerge at about the same time - why??? Why at this time, why not 20,000 years ago, etc
Warfare started -
Human power become valued as well because intense cultivation of land require human physical muscle power, so slavery became a thing
Energy was being devoted to war and then developing land and tech
Metallurgy is the key criterion for differentiating between simple and advanced horticultural societies. This refers to how widespread the use of metal weapons and tools are. Simple societies = wood/stone while advanced societies = metal.

The shift from stone to metals was a gradual process for a number of reasons. E.g. slow discovery of the uses of copper, perhaps first to its colour and then invented a way for it to be less brittle and used for other purposes, and then added heat, and then discovered smelting which allowed for the extraction of copper from ores, and then can melt copper to cast in molds:
(1) Until smelting was discovered, supply of copper was limited or needed to be transported a distance
(2) Metalworking was probably mastered by only a few specialists who treated their skills as a kind of magic to protect a lucrative monopoly
(3) Since any man could make his own tools and weapons out of stone, people were reluctant to switch to the costlier product

The shift was also significant because of the far reaching effects of the manufacture and use of metal weapons and tools. Social consequences of metal tools and weapons can be best seen in China, who had the most prolonged horticultural era due to an absence of the plow. It was the most advanced in that era. One such example of this is because the dominant metal is bronze, not copper. Bronze is harder than copper and can be used for many more purposes, and was the result of military successes from the use of bronze weapons.

If plant cultivation = conquest of nature, then bronze = conquest of people. Both were decisive turning points in sociocultural evolution. Possibility of the conquest, control, and exploitation of other societies for profit needed an advance in military technology, i.e. bronze
Continuing importance of kinship in simple horticultural societies because almost everyone is related in some way especially with the virtual absence of social organisations like guilds or parties. Kinship systems are very complex with rules governing relations among numerous categories.
— High incidence of ancestor worship because their permanent settlementss* place them in closer proximity to their dead so those that have passed are more likely to be remembered and honoured.
—— Such a high incidence of ancestor worship is also attributed to the needed justification for the emerging enhanced leadership roleole*.

Many of them also adhered to matrilineal kin groups probably as a result of the relative contributions of men and women to subsistence. In societies where men also make a substantial contribution, such a matrilineal pattern is not likely to develop.

In terms of leadership, they tend to be led by headmen or chiefs who also took on important religious functions as shamans. The chief's influence is enhanced when he combines secular with religious functions.

Social inequality is also generally limited in that there is no extremes of wealth or political power. Substantial differences in prestige emerge when [1] political / religious leaders enjoy higher status based on their personal achievements or [2] military prowess or [3] skills in oratory, age, kinship ties. The greater and more advanced the technology and economy, the greater social inequality tends to be.

There was also a more complex division of labour as a result of specialisation. E.g. chiefs do not have to hunt in forests or work in production, craftsmen made tools, etc.

Earliest advanced horticultural societies had a feudalistic structure which meant that power was in the hands of a warrior nobility that ruled people in their immediate area, who paid tribute to the king and supported him militarily, but was essentially independent. There was also a marked social inequality in the form of 2 basic classes: a [1] small warrior nobility who were the governing class and lived in walled cities that served as their fortresses and had access to resources like bronze, and the [2] great mass of common people who mainly functioned to produce economic surplus by which [1] depended on. Kinship was extremely important because membership in the governing class was largely hereditary.

Physical structure of those early urban centres were also impressive and reflected the evolution of the state and its newly acquired ability to mobilise labour on a large scale.
Food production was seen as the first great social revolution because the domestication of plants and animals for food purposes led to the first major transformation in human society. It used to be that the environment influenced society's structure, but people were now able to somewhat control their environment. It also changed the dynamic between species.

(1) Possessing domestic animals and livestock fed more people by:
— Becoming the major source of animal proteinn* instead of wild game
— Serving as sources of milk and milk products (butter, cheese, yogurt) thereby yielding several times more caloriess* over their lifetime than just meat

Increase crop productionn* by:
—— manure provides crop fertilizer and fuel
—— pulling plowsows* and making it possible for people to till land that had previously been uneconomical

If they had no animals = grew crops in river valleys.

(2) Sedentary lifestyle enforced by food production
Denserr* human populations permitted by a shortened birth interval (2 years instead of 4 years)
— Store food surpluses which are essential for [1] feeding non-food-producing specialists and the [2] formation of complex political units, [33*] feeding professional soldiers and priests (justifications for war)
—— This was crucial to the complexity of the political units, which allowed them to be better at conquest.

(3) Yield natural fibres for making clothing, blankets, nets, ropes from both crops + livestock

(4) Big domestic mammals revolutionised society by becoming land transport — can move goods and people in large quantities rapidly and for long distances

E.g. Most direct contribution of plant and animal domestication to wars is the conquest from Eurasia's horses, whose military role made them the jeeps and Sherman tanks of ancient warfare on that continent
— Lead to westward expansion of speakers of Indo-European languages
— Invention of stirrups: allowed Huns and successive waves of other peoples from the Asian steppes to terrorize others
—Only the introduction of tanks in WWI did horses finally become supplanted

BUT: Germs also evolved in human societies as a result of animal domestication. Those first to fall victim are also those that developed substantial resistance to new diseases.
[Agrarian] refers to the combination of social, economic, and political system, but [agriculture] means to work at a field with a machine. Thus, agrarian societies were distinguished by their usage of farming as a main method of subsistence. Advanced agrarian societies have widespread access to iron/steel tools and is distinguished from the use of stone vs. iron plow.

Early sites of agrarian societies were in Mesopotamia (Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Iran) and Egypt, and later China and India. Other agrarian societies emerged, but these places were first because they had the material and social (ideology+social organisation) foundation to develop and take root.

The emergence of agricultural societies is marked by the use of the plow. The invention of the plow was seen as an agricultural revolution because it transformed the way crops grew and how crops growing was conducted. Again, this happened in gradual steps, contingent on other innovations such as domestication that allowed for the planting and harvesting of crops.

The invention of the plow allowed for:
(1) Better control of weeds which allowed them to plant more than root plants
(2) Bringing back leached nutrients to the surface which allow them to plant more than root plants
(3) Harnessing of animal power (oxen)
(4) Greatly improving the productivity of the land

There is significant [1] specialisation of labour in both regions and communities. [2] Often a governing elite that control both the political and the economic aspects of life. [3] Trade is increasingly important. Nearly every society was once ruled by a king or other monarch.
[4] Military conflict is much more common because now there's a lot to fight for and ideology (~monotheistic religion) to support killing, raiding, stealing of other communities. [5] Religion also plays a much more important role than before. [6] Construction of major architectural works is more common - specifically temples and shrines. There was also an [7] advancement of leisure and arts and a further stratification of the social classes. [8] Highly developed elite class is another feature of an agrarian society.
(1) There was an agrarian way of life which referred to:
Feudalismm* both in Europe and Asia where ordinary individuals did not have their own land and worked for someone else.
— Work was more demanding in comparison to H&G or Horticulture. There was therefore a lower standard of living and a shorter life expectancy as the result of hard work and an uncertainty of crop yieldss*.
— People who were close to domesticated animals were also first to get diseases and had yet to develop the antibody for it.

(2) In terms of social structures, the political rule constituted of the religious elites such as priests and their congregants, the economic structure consisted of lords and peasants, and the military structure consisted of knights and foot soldiers. Rule was hereditary and there was a surplus expropriation in terms of rent and taxation.

(3) In terms of family size and structure, there was an increase in populations though initially, life expectancy dropped. Male members stayed with the family because they did not split the land amongst kids. There was also a village and clan exogamy regardless of bloodline, but an ethnic, religious, and class endogamy.

For the first time, patrilineality and patrilocality became the dominant way of positioning. Clans were also invested in seeing individuals get married, so arranged marriages were a way of ensuring that the marriage, as a family/clan event, would not be left to the individual's hands.

(4) The status of women was markedly reduced because of their contribution to subsistence. Women used to be more knowledgable about crops, but now farming, which is also a strenuous activity, has fallen onto the men. There's a decreased visibility and value of women's work. Part of this is due to the increased fertility rate — women have been more focused on raising and rearing 10-12 children during their prime years.

(5) Social stratification was also much more complexed. Discussed later.

(6) There was an emergence of universal faiths — polytheism was replaced by monotheism (particularly Christianity, Islam, Buddhism), and this was the period when the religions we see today took root. There was a construction of major architectural works, specifically temples and shrines. Finally, there was an increased importance of religion in [1] unifying diverse peoples, [2] social control, [33*] support for hierarchy in terms of ideology.

(7) The rise of empires also occurred in this period, as will be discussed later.
The innovations of that period included the invention of the wheel and its application both tao wagons and to the manufacture of pottery, the invention of the plow, the harnessing of animals to pull wagons and plows and their use as pack animals, the harnessing of wind power for sailboats, the invention of writing and numerical notation and invention of the calendar. With these new cultural resources, societies expanded their populations, increased their material wealth and developed social organizations far more complex than anything known before.

(1) Technology
Although all of the innovations mentioned above were important, the plow had the greatest potential for social and cultural change because it made more [1] permanent cultivation possible in a greater variety of soils, and thereby led to the widespread replacement of horticulture by agriculture. It also [2] facilitated the harnessing of animal energy which led to increased productivity. The plow and related techniques of agriculture apparently [3] spread by diffusion until agrarian societies were eventually established throughout most of Europe, North Africa and Asia. The plow presupposed certain earlier inventions and discoveries underlying again the cumulative nature of technological change.

(2) Religion and the Growth of the Economic Surplus
Technological advance created a possibility of surplus, but ideology was needed to motivate farmers into producing more than just subsistence, and then to turn that surplus over to an authority. Although this has sometimes been accomplished by means of secular and political ideologies, a system of beliefs that defined people's obligations with reference to the supernatural worked best in most societies of the past. Religion was an extremely powerful force in the earliest agrarian societies in that the combination of church and state allowed for a better social control.

(3) Population: Growth in Size of Communities and Societies
In the first few centuries after the shift to agriculture, there was striking growth in the size of a number of communities, especially in Mesopotamian societies.

(4) The Polity: Growth of the State
Traditional modes of government based on kinship ties were no longer adequate for administering the affairs of societies whose populations now sometimes numbered in the millions. Through rulers continued to rely on relatives to help them govern, they were forced to turn increasingly to others. One solution was to incorporate a conquered group as a subdivision of the conquering society, leaving its former ruler in charge but in a subordinate capacity. Eventually all successful rulers found it necessary to create new kinds of governmental structures that were no longer based on kinship ties alone. One consequence of the growth of empires and bureaucracy was the establishment of the first formal legal system. As empire grew, it was necessary to bring diverse cultures under a single political system.

(5) Economy: The First Monetary Systems and the Growth of Trade
Money was absent in the first simple agrarian societies, although there existed standardized media of exchange, such as barley. As these media became too cumbersome the use of currency became common. The growth of monetary systems had enormous implications for societal development. Money has always facilitated the movement, the exchange, and ultimately the production of goods and services of every kind. The establishment of a monetary system greatly expands the market for the things each individual produces, because products can then be sold even to people who produce nothing the producer wants in exchange. Thus the demands for goods and services increases.

(6) Stratification: Increasing Inequality
In most simple agrarian societies of the ancient world, newly emerging or expanding social and cultural differences created internal divisions within society, and sometimes conflict as well. Three cleavages were especially serious: [1] between the small governing class and the much larger mass of people who had no voice in political decisions and who to hand over all or most of the surplus they produced to the governing class; [2] division between the urban minority and the far more numerous rural population; [3] between the small literate minority and the illiterate masses.

Because these 3 lines of cleavage tended to converge, their impact was greatly magnified.
Technologically speaking, the most important technological advance was the discovery of the technique of smelting iron. Prior to this, bronze had been the most important metal, but because the supply was limited and the demands of the governing class took precedence over the need of the peasants, bronze was primarily used for military, ornamental, and ceremonial purposes. So it was only in the 8th century BC that there are true advanced agrarian societies, when iron came into general use for ordinary tools. Compared with simpler societies, advanced agrarian societies enjoyed a very productive technology.

There was also a continuing trend in the growth of the size of the population — this was due partly to advances in agricultural technology that permitted greater population densities, and partly due to advances in military technology that aided the process of empire building. Birthrates were also high (triple of that in industrial societies) because there have been little interest in limiting the size of families since children were valued for both economic and religious reasons. One of the constraints on population growth is the threat of severe deprivationn*.

The growth of territory and population came with an increase division of labour—there was a significant economic specialisation both by regions and by communities, which was accompanied by an increased occupational specialisationn*.

Because politics and economics were always highly interdependent in advanced agrarian societies, those who dominated the political system also dominated the economic system. The production and distribution of resources were determined less by supply and demand than by arbitrary decisions of the political elite. Hence, these are command economies.

In most advanced agrarian societies, the governing elite owned a grossly disproportionate share of the land. The basic philosophy of the governing class was to tax peasants to the limit of their ability to pay, so the peasants' living conditions were worse off than that of H/G from thousands of years earlier. For the majority of peasants, the one real hope for substantial improvement in their lot lay in devastation wrought by plagues, famines, and wars.

Thus, the population of the city/urban communities consisted of only 10% of its total population—it composed mostly of the governing class, merchants, artisans, beggars, slaves, and criminals.

There was also a continuing development of the state—in all advanced agrarian societies, the government was the basic integrating force. Nearly every advanced agrarian society was a monarchy, headed by a king or emperor whose position was usually hereditary. Coercion was necessary to hold things together because society run for the benefit of a tiny elite. Because of the absence of commercialisation, most conflict was intraclass. Most members of the governing class considered political power a prizee* to be sought for the rewards it offered. This practice reflects a proprietary theory of the state.

There was also an emergence of universal faiths—an emergence of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam—which reflected the broader social and intellectual horizons that resulted from advances in transportation technology and the spreading web of trade relations. There was also a growing separationion* of religious and political institutions, although leaders in both spheres worked closely together.

Kinship ties remained of great importance to individuals although they ceased to be the chief integrating force

There was also an increasing complexity of stratification — the basic cleavages were the same, and so were the basic patterns of inequality and the principal division in society was still between the governing class and the mass of peasants, but it altered in that it became more complexx*. There was a growing overlap in classes and occupations, and class divisions were greater than in simple agrarian societies.
(1) Not a conscious choice to adopt farming — it evolved as a by-product of decisions made without awareness of its consequences
(2) Not necessarily a sharp divide between nomadic hunter-gatherers and sedentary food producers. E.g. some became sedentary but not food producers, others became sedentary first and adopted food production later on. There are also groups of mobile food producers that return to check on their crops and mtaintain them.
(3) Blurred distinction between food producers as active managers of their land and h/g as collectors of wild produce. Some hunter-gatherers do manage their land.

The development of food production was gradual. In its early stages, people simultaneously collected wild foods and raised cultivated ones. Collecting activities diminished in importance at different times as reliance on crops increased.

The main reason why the transition was gradual is that food production systems evolved as a result of the accumulation of many separate decision about allocating time and effort. There are two main impetus towards this: [1] People seek to maximise their return of calories by foraging in a way that yields high returns for least effort and [2] to minimise their risk of starving by prioritising moderate but reliable returns. Men hunters also tend to guide themselves by ideas of [3] prestige preferring to hunt for prestige rather than reliably gathering nuts. People are also guided by [4] seeminglyarbitrary cultural preferences such as fish=delicacies or taboo. Finally, their priorities are influenced by the [5] values they attach to different lifestyles, such as hunting vs. herding.

Once food production had arisen in one part of a continent, neighbouring h/g could decide to adopt or ignore. Adoption of food production may have been rapid and wholesale in southeastern and central Europe because the hunter-gatherer lifestyle there was less productive and less competitive. By contrast, food production was adopted piecemeal in southwestern Europe, where sheep arrived first and cereals later, or because h/g lifestyle based in areas with seafood and local plants were productive. There were times where food production systems were abandoned in favour of h/g for a few hundred years before resuming farming.

There are five main factors as to why the predominant result has been a shift from hunting-gathering to food production:
(1) The decline in the availability in wild foods, especially animal resources either because of climate changes or because of depletion when people's skills improved. E.g. Polynesian settlers depleted species of animals until they had to intensify their food production.
(2) On top of (1), an increased availability of domesticable wild plants made steps leading to plant domestication more rewarding. E.g. climate changes at the end of the Pleistocene expanded the areas of habitats with wild cereals, which were precursors to the domestication of the earliest crops in the Fertile Crescent.
(3) The cumulative development of technologies on food production allowed them to increasingly turn to plant domestication.
(4) As population densities rose, food production became increasingly favoured because it provided the increased food outputs needed to feed all those people.

Adoption of food production is therefore an autocatalytic process—a gradual rise in population = compelled people to obtain more food = people become more sedentary = higher birth rates = rise in population. This explains why they were less well nourished than H/G. Because of these denser populations, they were able to displace or kill h/gg* by their sheer numbers, not to mention other advantages associated with food production (tech, germs, soldiers).

Only in areas with potent geographic or ecological barriers which made immigration of food producers or techniques difficult were H/G able to persist until modern times.
Plant domestication is defined by Diamond as growing a plant and thereby—consciously or unconsciously—causing it to change genetically from its wild ancestors in ways making it more useful to human consumers.

For plants, their key purpose is to disperse their seeds, many of which trick animals into carrying them. Some have adapted to being eaten and dispersed, so the early unconscious stages of crop evolution from wild plants is evolving in ways that attracted humans to eat and disperse their fruit without yet intentionally growing them.

So what are people's unconscious criteria that plants have adapted to?
(1) Size — people prefer larger berries, which explains why many crop plants have much bigger fruits than their wild ancestors, a difference that only arose in recent centuries.
(2) Taste — wild seeds evolved to be bitter or even poisonous to deter animals from eating them, so natural selection acts oppositely on seeds and fruits. The fruit itself tastes good, but their seeds do not in order to be dispersed. E.g..* Almonds in the wild originally contained a bitter chemical that can break down to yield poison cyanide. Why it has become something we consume today is because of a mutation in a single gene that prevents them from synthesizing the chemical. These nonbitter almond seeds would be the ones sampled and planted, at first unintentionally, and then later intentionally.

These are the 2 top criteria, but other criteria include fleshy/seedless fruits, oily seeds, long fibres. Seedlessness is a good example of how human selection can completely reverse the original evolved function of a wild fruit. Thus, by harvesting these individual wild plants that possessed these desirable qualities to an exception degree, ancient peoples unconsciously dispersed the plants and set them on the road to domestication.

Other than humans, there are other major types of change that did not involve them making visible choices.
(1) Only mutant seeds that lack mechanisms for dispersal would have been harvested because otherwise, they could not have been efficiently gathered. E.g. Wild wheat and barley had seeds that grew on stalks that would shatter, dropping seeds on the ground for germination. The single-gene mutation prevents stalks from shattering, and these end up being the ones harvested and brought home. Thus, the mutant seeds became the ones that farmers harvested and sowed, while normal seeds fell to the ground and became unavailable. This demonstrates how human farmers reversed the direction of natural selection.
(2) Annual plants evolve by means of germination inhibitors that make seeds initially dormant and spread their germination over several years because the weather is unpredictable and they need to up their chances of survival. This is done by enclosing their seeds in a thick coat or armor. Early farmers discovered that they could obtain higher yields by tilling and watering the soil.
(3) Mutant plants that did not have germination inhibitors would have sprouted and yielded harvested mutant seeds that would have changed the course of natural selection.
(4) For plants that reproduce themselves, the mutant gene would automatically be preserved.

Why were some plants domesticated early on, some later on, and some never at all? The stages of domestication is based on the characteristics of the plants.
(*1*) *Wheat, barley, peas* were domesticated *10,000 years ago* because they were [1] already edible and gave high yields in the wild. They also [*2*] grew quickly and could be harvested within a few months and were easily stored. Furthermore, theWheat, barley, peas peas* were domesticated 10,000 years ago because they were [1] already edible and gave high yields in the wild. They also [2] grew quickly and could be harvested within a few months and were easily stored. Furthermore, their [3] wild ancestors required very little genetic change to be converted into crops.
(2) First fruit and nut trees were domesticated around 4000 BC. Compared to (1), they had the drawback of not yielding food until at least three years after planting, and not reaching full production until after a decade. But they were still the easiest crops to cultivate.
(3) There are also trees that cannot be grown from cuttings and is not worth growing from seed. They need to be grafted instead.
Diamond asks: Why did agriculture never arise independently in some fertile and highly suitable areas? Why, among the areas where agriculture did arise independently, did it develop much earlier in some than in others? Two possible explanations are propose: there's either a problem with the apples (plants are not domesticable) or a problem with the Indians (people were sucky).

The fertile crescent appears to have been the earliest site for a whole string of developments including cities, writing, empires, and civilisation. The advantages of the fertile crescent include:
(1) It lies within a zone of so-called Mediterranean climate, characterised by mild, wet winters & long, hot, dry summers. The climate is important because it selects the plant species that are able to survive the long dry season and resume growth rapidly upon the return of the rains. Plants there are annuals that dry up and dies during the dry season. One year of life produces big seeds instead of making inedible wood/fibrous stems such as trees and bushes. They constitute 6 of the modern world's 12 major crops.

(2) Wild ancestors of many founder crops were already abundant and highly productive, occurring in large strands whose value must have been obvious to hunter-gatherers. These crops made it easy for hunter-gatherers to collect huge quantities of wild cereals when the seeds are ripe for storage and enables them to settle down more permanently even before plant cultivation. Such ease of domestication—as compared to other crops such as corn that had to undergo drastic changes to become useful—made it the among the first crops to develop in certain areas, including the Fertile Crescent. This contrast between wheat/barley (big-seeded annuals) and the difficulties posed by teosinte may have been a significant factor in the differing developments of New World and Eurasian human societies.

(3) Flora included a high percentage of hermaphroditic selfers which meant that their reproductive biology was convenient for early farmers. Furthermore, on the occasions that they did cross-pollinate, they also generated new varieties among which to select from. Of the first significant 8 crops to have been domesticated, all were selfers.

Th question that turns to why, if they had the same climate, did other zones in the Mediterranean fail to rival the Fertile Crescent as an early site of food production? What advantages did the Fertile Crescent enjoy?

(1) Has the world's largest zone of Mediterranean climate. A larger area meant a higher diversity of domesticable plants.

(2) Greatest climate variation from season to season and year to year, which favoured evolution among the flora, especially in a high percentage of annual plants. The combination of high diversity & high percentage of annuals with large seeds means a high diversity of annuals.

(3) It provides a wide range of altitudes and topographies within a short distance, which means that harvest seasons can be staggered. Hunter-gatherers could thus harvest grain seeds as they matured instead of being overwhelmed by a concentrated harvest at a single altitude.

(4) Wealth in ancestors—because they have a lot of diversity over a small distance—not only of valuable crops, but also of domesticated big mammals. The early domesticated animals (goat, sheep, pig, cow, horse) lived in sufficiently close proximity that they could be readily transferred after domestication from one part of the Fertile Crescent to another, such that the region had all four species. Agriculture could arise in the Fertile Crescent from the domestication of locally available wild plants without having to wait for the arrival of crops derived from plants domesticated elsewhere. So agriculture was launched in the fertile crescent by the early domestication of 8 "founder crops" — 3 cereals, 4 pulses, and flax. The fertile crescent thus had an advanced biological package for intensive food productionction*.

(5) It may have faced less competition from H/G lifestyle than that in some other areas because mammal species hunted for meat are overexploited by the growing human population and reduced significantly, the food production package quickly became superior, hence there was a quick transition.

In the other areas, the problem does not lie with the people as well. [1] Ethnobiological studies have shown that hunter-gatherers know all their locally available wild species and their crops. And [2] they do exploit their knowledge to domesticate the most useful available species as evidenced by studies that demonstrate that the hunter-gatherers of the time brought home only the most useful available seed plants and avoided toxic plants or those with small or unpalatable seeds.

New Guinea offers a contrast to the fertile crescent because their indigenous food production was restricted [1] by the local absence of domesticable cereals, pulses, and animals, [2] by the resulting protein deficiency in the highlands, and [3] by limitations of the locally available root crops at high elevations. This is despite knowing as much about the wild plants and animals as people today. Thus, New Guinea is the perfect example of Diamond's stance that limitations on food production has nothing to do with the peoples, and everything to do with the biota and environment. Especially since when local peoples promptly took advantage of productive crops when they arrived from elsewhere*, and increased greatly in population.
Diamond is trying to explain why so many places in the world did not have large domesticated animals. This is important to his theory because some people would claim that people like the Australian Aborigines did not domesticate animals because they were too backwards. Diamond disagrees with that sort of assessment and wants to say that geographic luck led to most of the inequality in human history. All large animals that could be domesticated were domesticated by 2500 BC.

The term "Anna Karenina principle" refers to the book Anna Karenina, by Leo Tolstoy. The first sentence of that book is "Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is different in its own way." This relates to animals because it means that there are many things that must be true about an animal in order for it to be domesticable. That means that there are many different ways that an animal can be "bad" for domestication, but all domesticable animals are similar because they have all of the necessary traits. Cultural variances do not explain the absence of domesticates at some locales: (1) Imported domesticates are typically rapidly accepted when appropriate to the locale, (2) pet keeping is universal, (3) domestication arose rapidly where appropriate species were available, (4) independent and parallel domestication occurred at different locales, and (5) there has been very limited success at modern domestications. Efforts in the 19C and 20C to domesticate the eland, elk, moose, musk ox, zebra, and bison have met with limited success.

Diamond says that animals must have:
(1) The right diet — omnivore or herbivore with the exception of the dog
(2) Growth rate
(3) Ability to breed in captivity in terms of room (cheetahs need more room) and mating rituals (cannot be too long)
(4) Temperament — their disposition must be suitable for taming
(5) Calmness in that it accepts penning
(6) Social structure and hierarchy to accept subordinate role and herding (cats don't herd)
An animal can have all but one of these and be useless for domestication.

This supports Diamond's theory because it means that the ability to domesticate animals comes about by luck. You have to be lucky enough to have one or more of the few animals that fulfils all the criteria living near you in order to domesticate them. Domesticated animals are changed through mutations from their wild progenitors, not just tamed. Many have gotten smaller under domestication and have been otherwise modified for greater milk production, more wool, etc.
It is difficult to define but broadly, speaking, the IR really *refers to the major shifts of
technological, organisational, social-economic conditions in the late/mid-18th century* that began in Britain and then spread throughout the world.

There are four phases in of the Industrial Revolution:
(1) 1760 - 1850: Geographically centred in England and consisted of the innovation of machines that increased the efficiency of human labour (creation of the factory system) and harnessed new sources of energy (factory system spread from textile to iron industry). No longer was a single tool used for drilling/boring/grinding/milling, but there was the rise of machines capable of precision work.
(2) 1850 - 1900: primarily in technological facilitation of transportation such as the steam engine. This greatly reduced the cost of moving goods which reduced the price of most heavy bulk commodities, thus leading to a greater demand for them and a breakdown of local monopolies/ogliopolies. England gradually became a single giant market for a growing number of commodities. There was also an organisational innovation that was important towards the development of the modern corporation
(3) 1900 - 1950: synthetic materials, nuclear power, and transportation — in this phase, IR also spread to new parts of the worldd*, thus changing the relative ranking of nations in economic terms.
(4) 1950 - present: the information age - the first major technology was television which enabled those in control to transform/manipulate values, beliefs, and actions of people.

Why is the industrial revolution still occurring? Firstly, there are greater informational resources and a larger population; the more people = more minds at work. Secondly, there are changing attitudes towards innovation — members of society actively promote and encourage innovation instead of stigmatising it. Education no longer just encourages rote memorisation but creative thinking and research. Thirdly, the rise of modern science contributes to the need for innovations that facilitate us in explaining the workings of the world we live in. So if modern science continues to prevail, IR will continue. Fourthly, military tech becomes obsolete within a short frame of time, so military research will keep on innovating, and their products will be beneficial for non-military areas of life (e.g. silicon chip). Fifthly, environmental feedback as a result of risk society requires the wheel to keep turning and maintaining the environment. Finallyy*, there is a desire for ever higher standards of living; the more people have, the more people want.
Lenski cites 4 important things that led to the IR:
(1) There was an accumulation of information in the agrarian era which meant that there was an enormous store of information which held the obvious potential for an increase in the rate of innovations when other conditions within societies became favourable.

(2) Advances in water transportation led to the conquest of the New World. Voyagers shipped back vast quantities of gold and silver, which meant there was a tremendous growth in the money economy and a decline in the barter system. Money was important towards breaking down the barriers for technological innovation because people were more likely to invest in new enterprises and less likely to state obligations such as wages, rents, or debts. It also produce inflation that led to an orientation towards rational profit-making, therefore motivating people to provide financial support for technological innovations that would increase the efficiency of people and machines. As colonies provided a growing market for Europe's manufactured goods and paid for them with a swelling flood of cheap and abundant raw materials, which resulted in a shift of the center of world trade, as Western Europe replaced the Middle East.

(3) The printing press was also invented and contributed to the dissemination of new technological and ideological information, which was a major factor in overcoming resistance to innovation and change. The printing press made it easier for protestant doctrines to be disseminated, that subsequently led to parts of society developing a new outlook in life. The protestant reform remolded the attitudes, beliefs, values of countless people in ways that undermined the traditional agrarian economy on top of stimulating economic and technological innovation. Lenski suggests that it's more than a coincide that the IR had its beginnings in predominantly protestant nations, hence the protestant reformation was an important link in the chain of causation that led to the IR.

(4) Advances in agriculture — thus far, the chief restraint on societal growth and development is in agricultural technology because the elites want to maintain the status quo, and the peasants were happy to survive. However, things changed when the increased use of money and inflation began to undermine the system because it led to agriculture in Europe gradually becoming more profit-oriented and capitalistic and less governed by tradition and custom. So in the 18th century, innovations were adoptedd* where traditional systems of agriculture had been weakened, such as crop rotation or simple machines.
Demographic transition (DT) refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system. Thus, it's a theory that connects population growth to the economic system.

Characteristics of the First Demographic Transition — Pre-Industrial
(1) Declining age of first marriage: Marriage was seen as an economic necessity; an expansion of networks and arrangement for property transfer. In order to accumulate wealth by combining their land and resources, children got marriage earlier
(2) Low cohabitation
(3) Low divorce: Not really need for divorce as often families got along well. Using china as an example, families often get married within their family line to preserve their wealth E.g. cousin to cousin. Thus as the family are familiar with each other and grew up together, the tendency for them divorcing is low. In addition, if they divorce, there is no other methods for either to survive alone
(4) Decline in material fertility via reduction at older age
(5) Preoccupation with basic material needs: for survival
(6) Rising membership of political and cultural networks
(7) Dominance of single family model
(8) Importance of children: As labour was needed to maintain the farming fields

Characteristics of the Second Demographic Transition that began in western Europe as they were the first to industrialise.
(1) Fall in proportion married; decline in remarriage: No need for accumulation of wealth through land and resources with the
movement to industrialized societies. Thus the younger generations were not subjected to arrange marriage anymore.
(2) Delayed age in marriage: as they left the fields, they were economically independent, they had to work in order to
accumulate wealth from scratch before getting married, thus there was a delayed age in marriage
(3) High divorce rates: Not because they increasingly had conflict, but rather there was a buffer by social welfare created by
government. Thus even though they divorced with kids, the government had platforms to support them as compared to
previous generations with nothing
(4) Delayed childbearing: due to delayed marriage age; and no need for children labour
(5) Rise in high order needs
(6) Rise in female economic activity: No more farm labour to tend for