44 terms

All Dosage Forms/Drug Delivery Systems

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aerosols
products packaged under pressure that contain therapeutically active ingredients that are released as a fine mist, spray, or foam on actuation of the valve assembly
aromatic waters
clear, saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic substances in water. used orally, topically.
boluses
large elongated tablets intended for administration to animals
capsules
solid dosage forms in which one or more medicinal and/or inert substances are enclosed within small shells of gelatin
creams
semisolid preparations containing one or more drug substances dissolved or dispersed in a suitable base; easier to spread and remove than ointments
drug delivery systems
physical carriers used to deliver medications to site-specific areas; include transdermal, ocular, and intrauterine systems
transdermal (drug delivery systems)
support passage of drug substances from surface of skin thru various layers to systemic ciruculation (usually skin patches)
ocular (drug delivery systems)
consist of drug-impregnated membranes that, when placed in lower conjunctival sac, release medication over an extended period
intrauterine (drug delivery system)
consist of a drug-containing intrauterine device that releases medication over an extended period after insertion into the uterus
elixirs
sweetened, flavored, hydroalcoholic solutions intended for oral administration; may be medicated or non-medicated; better able to maintain both water-soluble and alcohol-soluble components in solution
emulsions
one liquid is dispersed throughout another liquid in the form of fine droplets; two liquids are immiscible and constitute two phases that would separate into layers without presence of a third agent
o/w emulsion
oil in water (oil is internal phase, smaller)
w/o emulsion
water in oil (water is internal phase, smaller)
extracts
concentrated preparations of vegetable or animal drugs prepared by extracting the constituents from the natural source and drying the extractive to the desired pilular or powdered form
fluidextracts
liquid extractives of vegetable drugs generally prepared such that 1 mL represents the active constituents from 1 g of vegetable drug
gels
semisolid systems consisting of either suspensions of small inorganic particles or large organic molecules interpenetrated by a liquid
implants or pellets
small, sterile, solid dosage forms containing a concentrated drug for subcutaneous implantation in the body where they continuously release their medication over prolonged periods
inhalations
finely powdered drug substances, solutions, or suspensions of drug substances administered by the nasal or oral respiratory route for local or systemic effects (uses special devices)
injections
sterile preparations intended for parenteral administration by needle or pressure syringe
intravenous (IV)
vein
intramuscular (IM)
muscle
subcutaneous (SC)
skin
irrigations
sterile solutions intended to bathe or flush open wounds or body cavities; not intended for injection
liniments
alcoholic or oleaginous solutions, suspensions, or emulsions of medicinal agents intended for external application to the skin, generally by rubbing
lotions
liquid preparations intended for external application to the skin. generally suspensions or emulsions of dispersed solid or liquid materials in an aqueous vehicle; fluidity allows rapid and uniform application over a wide skin surface. intended to soften skin and leave thin coat of components on skin's surface as they dry
lozenges
solid preparations containing one or more medicinal agents in a flavored, sweetened base intended to dissolve or disintegrate slowly in the mouth, releasing medication generally for localized effects
magmas
pharmaceutical suspensions of fine particles that, becuase of a high degree of physical attraction to the aqueous vehicle, form a gelatinous mixture - maintains uniformity and stability of suspension. administered orally.
ointments
semisolid preparations intended for topical application to the skin, eye, ear, or various mucous membranes. applied for their local effects on the tissue membrane rather than for systemic delivery.
ophthalmic ointments
sterile preparations intended for application to the eye
non-medicated ointments
serve as bases/vehicles in preparation of medicated ointments - prepared and dispensed on a weight basis
pastes
semisolid dosage forms that contain one or more drug substances intended for topical application to the skin; generally have higher proportion of solid materials than ointments. are more stiff, less greasy, and more absorptive of serous secretions
plasters
solid or semisolid adhesive masses spread across a suitable backing material and intended for external application to a part of the body for protection or for the medicinal benefit of added agents
powders
dry mixtures of finely divided medicinal and nonmedicinal agents intended for internal or external use. may be dispensed in bulk form, or may be divided into single-dosage units and packaged in folded papers or unit-of-use envelopes
premixes
mixtures of one or more drug substances with suitable vehicles intended for admixture to animal feedstuffs before administration; generally in powdered, pelletized, or granulated form
solutions
liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances (solutes) dissolved in a solvent or mixture of solvents
spirits
alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances; some used orally for medicinal purposes, others as flavoring agents
suppositories
solid dosage forms intended for insertion into body orifices; rectally, vaginally, urethrally.
suspensions
preparations containing finely divided, undissolved drug particles dispersed throughout a liquid vehicle; assume degree of opacity; tend to settle when left standing; must be shaken to redistribute
syrups
concentrated aqueous solutions of a sugar or sugar substitute; medicated or non-medicated.
tablets
solid dosage forms containing one or more medicinal substances. intended to be swallowed whole.
buccal (tablets)
intended to be dissolved in the mouth
sublingual (tablets)
intended to be dissolved under the tongue
effervescent (tablets)
intended to be dissolved in water before taking
tinctures
alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of either pure chemical substances or of plant extractives. most are applied topically; plant extractives are used for their content of active pharmacologic agents
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