Friedland Chapter 8

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Core
innermost zone of the earth, mostly nickel and iron
Mantle
contains molten rock, above core
Magma
molten rock inside the earth
Asthenosphere
outer mantle, semi-molten rock
Lithosphere
brittle outermost layer of the earth
Hot spots
weak areas in crust where hot molten materials reach surface
Plate Tectonics
theory that crustal plates on surface are in motion
Subduction
one crustal plate converging under another
Volcano
vent in Earth's surface that emits gas, ash and molten lava
Divergent Plate Boundary
two crustal plates move apart
Seafloor Spreading
diverging plates underwater
Convergent Plate Boundary
two crustal plates move together
Transform Fault Boundary
two crustal plates slide along side each other
Fault
crack in the earth's crust
Earthquakes
rocks of the lithosphere rupture and unexpectedly slip along fault
Seismic Activity
geologic activity surrounding a fault zone
Epicenter
point on surface of earth above earthquake
Richter Scale
reports magnitude of earthquake, logarthmic
Minerals
solid chemical substances with uniform crystalline structures
Rock Cycle
forms new rock by erosion, compression and heat
Igenous Rock
rock formed from hardened molten materials
Intrusive
rock formed inside earth, small crystals, igneous
Extrusive
rock formed outside earth, large crystals, igneous
Fractures
cracks formed when rocks cool
Sedimentary Rock
rock formed from compression and compaction of eroded rock particles
Metamorphic Rock
rock formed from heating and compressing other rocks
Physical Weathering
mechanical breakdown of rock by water and wind
Chemical Weathering
breakdown of rock by chemical reactions, dissolving of elements
Acid Precipitation
acidic atmospheric moisture that breaks down rocks and minerals
Erosion
physical removal of rock fragments
Deposition
accumulation or depositing of eroded material
Soil
mixture of geologic, chemical and biological components that support plant growth
Parent Material
rocks and minerals that make up soil and other rocks
Topography
lay of the land, surface slope and arrangement of landscape
Soil Horizons
layers of soil that depend on climate, vegetation and parent material
O-Horizon
organic top layer of soil, contains leaf litter
A-Horizon
topsoil layer
E-Horizon
zone of leaching, nutrients removed
B-Horizon
subsoil, composed primarily of mineral material, low organics
C-Horizon
weathered parent material
Texture
determined by percentages of sand, silt, and clay
Soil Pyramid
used to determine soil texture
Cation Exchange Capacity
nutrient holding capacity of soil
Base Saturation
measure of the proportion of soil bases to soil acids
Soil Degradation
loss of some or all of the ability of soils to support growth
Crustal Abundance
average concentration of an element in the crust
Ores
concentrated accumulations of minerals from which valuable materials can be extracted
Metals
elements with properties that allow them to conduct electricity
Reserve
the known quantity of the resource that can be economically recovered
Strip Mining
removal of strips of soil and rock to expose ore
Mining Spoils
unwanted waste material from mining
Open-Pit Mining
large pit or hole in the ground for easy extraction of materials
Mountaintop Removal
miners remove mountaintop to extact materials
Placer Mining
process of looking for metals or minerals in stream sediment
surface mining
The extraction of mineral and energy resources near Earth's surface by first removing the soil, subsoil, and overlying rock strata.
tectonic cycle
the sum of the processes that build up and break down the lithosphere
subsurface mining
Used when desired resource is more than 100m below Earth's surface.
crust
The thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle
fault zone
a large expanse of rock where a fault has occurred.