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Terms in this set (27)
1. Matter is composed of atoms, which move through empty space
2. Atoms are solid, homogeneous, indestructible, and indivisible
3. Atoms are different shapes and sizes
4. Size, shape, and movement of atoms determine the properties of matter
1. Empty space cannot exist
1. matter is made of earth, fire, air, and water.
1. Matter is composed of extremely small particles
2. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible
3. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and chemical properties
4. In a chemical reaction, atoms are separated, combined or rearranged
Explain how Dalton's theory explained the Law of Conservation of Mass
Atoms are not created, destroyed, or divided in the process
Distinguish between 3 subatomic particles in terms of relative charge and mass
Proton - rm= 1, rec = 1+
Neutron - rm = 0, rec = 1+
Electron - rm = 0, rec = 1-
smallest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element: is electrically neutral, spherically shaped, and composed of electrons, protons and neutrons.
Identify the Model that the Sir William Cooke's cathode ray tube experiment led to
The invention of television and discovery of the electrons.
Describe Rutherford's experiment and model of the atom
-Shot a beam of alpha particles at sheet of gold foil, some particles went through while others bounced off (discovered the nucleus)
-atom is composed of a dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged particles
Describe the relative locations of subatomic particles within the atom
Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus and electrons surround the nucleus
Identify elements via electrons and protons
An atom that has the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons.
Apply isotope notation to elements
Explain why atomic masses are not whole numbers
Atomic mass is the weighted average, since isotopes have different masses when you
calculate it it will not equal a whole number.
Solve for the quantity of an unknown particle
Mass number= number of protons + number of neutrons
Identify the relationship between unstable nuclei and radioactive decay
Unstable nuclei undergo enough radioactive decay to form stable, nonradioactive
Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass and charge
Alpha: Contains two protons and two neutrons. Radiation that contains a 2+ overall charge
Beta: Contains a -1 charge. Each is an electron
Gamma Radiation: High-Energy radiation that poses no mass. Usually accompany alpha and beta radiation and account for most of the energy lost during radioactive decay
Compare and contrast the wave and particle natures of light
Wave nature of light- wave properties and behavior (wavelength, frequency, amplitude) Does not explain important aspects of light's interaction with matter
Particle nature of light- heated objects only emit certain frequencies of light
Define a quantum of energy and explain how it is related to an energy change of matter
Quantum- the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
Energy can only be gained or lost in small, specific amounts called quanta
Compare/Contrast continuous electromagnetic spectra and atomic emission spectra
Continuous electromagnetic spectrum- includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation, with the only differences in the types of radiation being their frequencies and radiation
Atomic emission spectra- the set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of an element
Calculate wavelength, frequency, and energy of a quanta
E^quantum =h(planck's constant, 6.626 x10-34) x v(frequency)
Compare Bohr's Model and the quantum mechanical models of the atom
Like Bohr's model, the quantum mechanical model limits an electron's energy to certain values. However, unlike Bohr's model, the quantum mechanical model makes no attempt to describe the electron's path around the nucleus. Bohr's model describes the specific orbits around the nucleus of the atom. The quantum mechanical model describes specific orbits based on probability.
Explain how de Broglie's wave particle duality and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle impact the current view of electrons in atoms.
De Broglie's equation predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics. It explains why it is impossible to notice the wavelength of a fast-moving car.
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time
Describe the relationships among hydrogen atom's energy levels, sublevels, and atomic orbitals.
Electrons can occupy sublevel orbitals on any principle energy level
Apply Pauli exclusion principle, the aufbau principle, and Hund's rule to write electron configurations using Orbital diagrams and electron configuration notation (The order of energy level filling, and patterns on periodic table will be useful).
Pauli exclusion principle- a maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital but
only if the electrons have opposite spins
Aufbau Principle- each electron occupies the lowest energy level available
Hund's rule- single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital
before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals
Identify valence electrons in an electron configuration
Maximum of 8 valence electrons in the highest principle energy level
electrons in Ultraviolet series (Lyman)
electrons drop to first energy level
electrons in Visible series (Balmer)
electrons drop to second energy level
electrons in Infrared series (Paschen)
electrons drop to third energy level