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Stress, Anxiety, Burnout
Terms in this set (56)
any physical or psychological event or condition that produces stress. Example : a first date or a final exam.
The physiological changes associated with stress. Ex) sweaty palms and increased heart rate.
The collective psychological responses to any stimulus that changes an individuals homeostasis. Ex) a person taking a final exam would be experiencing stress.
autonomic nervous system
branch of the peripheral nervous system that, largely without conscious thought, controls basic body processes, consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
moderates the excitatory effect of the sympathetic system, slowing metabolism and restoring energy supplies. In control when you are relaxed, it aids in digesting food, storing energy, and promoting growth.
Reacts to danger or other challenges by almost instantly accelerating body processes. Activated during times of arousal, including exercise, an when there is an emergency. Commands your body to stop storing energy and instead mobilize all energy resources to respond to the crisis.
A neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic division onto target issues to increase their function in the face of increased activity. It is released on nearly every organ, sweat gland, blood vessel, and muscle to enable your body to handle an emergency.
System of glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones into the blood stream to influence metabolism and other body processes. Helps prepare the body for a stressor.
A chemical messenger produced in the body and transported in the bloodstream to target cells or organs for specific regulation of their activities.
A steroid hormone secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland; aka hydrocortisone. Trigger physiological changes such as hearing and vision becoming more acute , the heart rate accelerates to pump more oxygen through the body, the liver releases extra sugar into the blood stream to provide an energy boost, perspiration increases to cool skin.
A hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland that effects the functioning f organs involved in responding to a stressor, aka adrenaline.Trigger physiological changes such as hearing and vision becoming more acute , the heart rate accelerates to pump more oxygen through the body, the liver releases extra sugar into the blood stream to provide an energy boost, perspiration increases to cool skin.
Brain secretions that have pain inhibiting effects. Used in case you are injured. Inhibit or block pain sensations.
Fight or Flight Reaction
A defence reaction that prepares an individual for conflict or escape by triggering hormonal, cardiovascular, metabolic, and other changes. They give you heightened reflexes and strength you need to deal with stressors. The nervous system and the endocrine system are working together! Good survival method , but can be inappropriate in our day to day stressors.
A state of stability and consistency in an individuals physiological functioning. The parasympathetic system takes command and halts the reaction taking place, initiating the adjustments necessary to maintain homeostasis. Damage that may have been obtaining during the fight or flight response is repaired.
(mental appraisal) - influence how your potential stressors are viewed. Two factors that can reduce the magnitude of the stress response are successful prediction and perception of having some control over the stressor. This is highly individual and related to emotions. Who, What, Where, and When are typically consistent from person to person. The evaluation with respect to personal outcome varies from person to person . A certain amount of stress if coped with well can help promote optimal performance.
Somatic Nervous System
Controls the behavioural responses to stressors. Manage our conscious actions.
Effective Behaviours in response to stressors.
Effective behaviours include talking, laughing, exercising, meditating, learning time management skills and finding a more compatible partner / roommate.
Ineffective Behaviours in response to stressors.
Ineffective behaviours include drinking, smoking tobacco, overeating, expressing hostility and using drugs. AVOID THESE ! if you do avoid these, you will have a greater sense of well being.
The sum of behaviour, cognitive, and emotional tendencies. This effects how people perceive and react to stressors.
Type A Personality
Overly competitive, somewhat controlling, impatient, aggressive, and een hostile. A people have higher perceived stress level and more problems coping with stress. They react explosively to stressors and are upset by events that other would consider annoyances. People with this personality have an increased risk of heart disease.
Type B Personality.
Relaxed and contemplative. Less frustrated by daily events and more tolerant of the behaviours of others.
Type C Personalty
Difficulty expressing emotions, anger suppression, feelings of hopelessness and despair, and an exaggerated stress response to minor cognitive stressors. May be related to impaired immune functions.
Physical symptoms of stress
Dry mouth, excessive perspiration, frequent illness, gastrointestinal problems, grinding of teeth, headaches, high blood pressure, pounding heart, and stiff neck or aching lower back.
Emotional symptoms of stress
Anxiety or edginess, depression, fatigues, hyper vigilance, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, irritability, trouble remembering things.
Crying, disrupted eating habits, disrupted sleeping habits, harsh treatment of others, problem communicating, sexual problems, social isolation, and increased use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs.
Women are more likely to experience the fight or flight physiological response to stress, they are more likely to respond with a pattern of "tend and be-friend" - nurturing friends and family and seeking social support and social contacts. Rather than becoming aggressive or withdrawing from activity women are more likely to create and enhance their social networks in ways that reduce stress.
General adaptation syndrome ( GAS)
A pattern of stress responses consisting of three stages : alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. A theory that he believed that what is a universal and predictable response to all stressors.
Stress resulting from a pleasant stressor.
Stress resulting from an unpleasant stressor.
The complex sequence of events brought on by the activation if the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system - the fight or flight reaction. The body is more susceptible to disease or injury because it is geared up to deal with a crisis. A person in this phase may experience headaches, indigestions, anxiety, and disrupted sleeping and eating problems.
Resistance or Adaptation stage
Theory that with continued stress, the body develops a new level of homeostasis in which it is more resistant to disease and injury than normal. In this phase a person can cope with normal life and added stress.
If the stressor persists, or is you have more stressors occurring, general exhaustion results. This is a life threatening type of exhaustion of physiological exhaustion characterized by symptoms as distorted perceptions and disorganized thinking.
The long-term wear and tear of the stress response. A persons allostatic load depends on many factors including genetics, life experiences, and emotional and behavioural responses to stressors. A high allostatic load may be due to frequent stressors, poor adaptation to common stressors, an inability to shut down the stress response of different body systems. This has been linked to heart disease, high blood pressure, obesity, and reduced brain and immune system functioning. When you allostatic load exceeds your ability to cope, you are more likely to get sick.
The study of interactions among the nervous system, the endocrine system, and the immune system. The premise of this is that stress, through the actions of the nervous and endocrine systems, impairs the immune system and thereby affects health.
The compounds released during the stress response influence the immune system by affecting the number and efficiency of immune system cells, or lymphocytes.
Produced and received by both brain and immune system cells, so that the brain and immune system share a biochemical "language", which also has to be the language of emotions. The biochemical changes accompanying particular emotions can strongly influence the functioning of the immune system.
The stress response affects this system. During the response, the heart rate increases and blood vessels constrict, causing blood pressure to rise. Chronic high blood pressure is a major cause of atherosclerosis ( a disease which the lining of the blood vessels becomes damaged and caked with fatty deposits. These deposits can block arteries, causing heart attacks and strokes.)
Other health problems
digestive problems such as stomach aches, diarrhea, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and ulcers. Tension headaches and migraines, insomnia and fatigue, injuries, menstrual irregularities, impotence, and pregnancy complications, physiological problems such as depression, anxiety, PTSD.
University/ college stressors.
Academic stressors, interpersonal stressors, time pressures, financial concerns, and worries about the future.
Job Related Stressors
30% of Canadians rate their jobs as the key source of stress in their lives. Tight schedules, and overtime leaves less time to exercise, socialize, and engage in activities.
A state of physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion. If job or education-related stress is sever or chronic this may be the result. This occurs most often in high;y motivated and driven individuals who come to feel like their work is not recognized or that they are not accomplishing their goals. People in helping professions are also prone to burnout. A reduced work schedule, better communication with superiors, or a change in job goals may be necessary. Others may need a vacation or a leave of absence.
Interpersonal and social stressors
Your interactions with other may be a source of stress. The community and the society that you live in may be a source of stress as well. you may feel stress as your try to relate to them or there could be prejudice or discrimination. if you speak a different language that would be stressful as well !
Any relief that alcohol provides is temporary. Binge drinking and excessive consumption are not effective ways to handle stress. Using alcohol to deal with stress puts you at risk for the effects associated with it.
The nicotine in tobacco products can make you feel relaxed and may even increase your ability to concentrate, however it is highly addictive and causes cancer, heart disease, sexual problems, and many other health problems. It is the leading most preventable death in Canada.
Altering your bodies chemistry is not a good way to handle stress. Caffeine raises cortisol levels and blood pressure and disrupts sleep. Weed can elicit panic attacks with repeated use, and some research says that it can heighten the bodies stress response.
May lead to weight gain, and is a risky behaviour.
As little as 10 mins. of exercise can leave people feeling more energetic and in a relaxed state. Regular exercise has even more benefits. Physical activity allows you to expend the nervous system energy you have built up and trains your body to more readily return to homeostasis after a stressful situation. If you exercise compulsively you risk overtraining.
a healthy, balanced diet will provide you with the energy needed to deal with stress. eating wisely will enhance your feelings of self-sontrol and self-esteem.
Lack of sleep can be a cause and effect of stress. Without sufficient sleep, our mental and physical processes steadily deteriorate. Lack of sleep can also raise levels of stress hormones throughout the day. Getting enough sleep improves mood, fosters feelings, and supports optimal emotional and mental health.
A study found that students are more likely to exercise if they have social support for that activity, and that the social support that women prefer differs from that of men. Women showed a greater preference for social support from family members while social support from friends was more encouraging for men. Other studies show that married people have greater satisfaction with life and healthier cardiovascular systems than single people.
Better communication skills can help everyone form and maintain healthy relationships. It's not good to suppress your feelings!
Social support, healthy habits, positive attitude, and moments of relaxation.
Set priorities, schedule tasks for peak efficiency, set realistic goals and write them down, budget enough time, break up long-term goals into short-term ones, visualize the achievement of your goals, keep track of the tasks you put off, consider doing your least favourite tasks first, consolidate tasks when possible, identify quick transitional tasks, delegate responsibility, say no when necessary, give yourself a break, avoid your personal time sinks, and stop thinking or talking about what you're going to do...and just do it !
Monitor your self-talk ad attempt to memorize hostile, critical, suspicious, and self-deprecating thoughts. Modify expectations; they lead to disappointment ! Live in the present and "go with the flow".
A physiological state characterized by a feeling of warmth and quiet mental alertness.
Progressive relaxation (you tense and relax your muscles one by one). Visualization ( imagine yourself floating on a cloud, sitting on a mountain top, or lying in a meadow. Try to visualize all the good qualities of the environment. Your body will respond as if the imagery were real.) Deep Breathing. Listening to music.
Biofeedback( some measures of stress are mechanically monitored and feedback is given. This makes you conscious of your stress responses and with practise you may be able to gain control.) , hypnosis( controlled imagination) , and massage.
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