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Wilhelm Wundt

The first psychological laboratory was established by


Mrs. Alfieri believes that her husband's angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. Mrs. Alfieri is looking at her husband's behavior from a(n) ________ perspective.

people encode, process, store, and retrieve information.

The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how

providing psychotherapy to troubled people.

Clinical psychologists specialize in

test principles that help explain behavior.

Psychology experiments are typically designed to

similar processes often underlie animal and human behavior.

Psychologists study animals because

can bias their observations and interpretations.

Psychologists' personal values and goals

operational definition.

A statement describing how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n)

the survey

In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?


Ivan Pavlov pioneered the study of

less frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness.

A correlation between physical attractiveness and dating frequency of +0.70 would indicate that

the experiment

Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships?

reduce the likelihood of any preexisting differences between groups of participants.

Research participants are randomly assigned to different groups in an experiment in order to


Approximately what percentage of the cases represented by the normal curve fall between -1 and +1 standard deviations from the mean?

statistical significance

To decide whether observed differences between samples reflect actual differences between populations, you should determine the ________ of the observed differences.

the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.

An axon is


An action potential is generated by the movement of


Nerves are neural "cables" containing many

Neural networks.

The neurons of the central nervous system cluster into work groups known as


Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knob-like terminals at the end of the

the brain and the spinal cord.

The central nervous system consists of

endocrine system.

Hormones are the chemical messengers of the


If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release ________ into your bloodstream.

pituitary; endocrine glands

The hypothalamus influences the ________ to send messages to the ________.

Accelerate heartbeat.

The release of epinephrine into the bloodstream is most likely to


To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's


Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?

Motivating to repeat stimulation in that region.

Olds and Milner located a pathway in the brain that, for the rat, when stimulated electrically, was

Association areas

The process of comparing currently experienced visual input with past visual memories takes place in

epileptic seizures.

Neurosurgeons have cut the corpus callosum in human patients in order to reduce

verbally report that she saw a boy.

A picture of a dog is briefly flashed in the left visual field of a split-brain patient. At the same time a picture of a boy is flashed in the right visual field. In identifying what she saw, the patient would be most likely to

our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

Consciousness is

slow and especially effective for solving new problems.

Compared with unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively

a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle.

Circadian rhythm refers to

REM sleep than in Stage 4 sleep.

During the course of a full night's sleep, people are most likely to spend more time in

our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.

REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because

promote obesity and impair memory.

Chronic sleep deprivation is likely to

periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.

Narcolepsy is a disorder involving

Relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime.

Which of the following is the best advice for a person concerned about occasional insomnia?

wake Margie after 5 minutes of REM sleep and ask her what she's dreaming and audio-record her answer.

Margie insists that she never dreams, but her roommate feels she can prove otherwise. To prove that Margie does dream, the roommate should

spend less time in deep sleep.

Compared to when they were only 20 years old, 60-year-olds

social harmony.

A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of

person-to-person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between groups.

Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that

helping to select their children's neighborhood and schools.

Parents can most effectively increase their influence on their children by

less emphasis on obedience and less emphasis on family loyalty.

Compared with Asian parents, North American parents today place

tend and befriend.

Women are more likely than men to

Basic neuroscientific level, basic psychological processes, group dynamics, applications

Worthington said there were four levels of psychology. What were they?

Mass migration to urban areas increasing the stressfulness of life.

Worthington suggested that Psychology was a critical discipline for understanding the future because of two trends. One was that people are going to live longer (and thus population density is likely to increase) and the other is:

He did not use acceptable methods to analyze the data.

Worthington facetiously hypothesized that men are smarter than women, and he tried to show that his "hypothesis" was supported by doing an experiment. Which experimental mistake did he NOT make

his brain was injured so that his gut feelings weren't conveyed to the cortex

Phineas Gage's problem, after an iron rod was driven completely through his skull, was he couldn't control his impulses because

the action potential

In the demonstration of neural transmission, the woman who weaved in and out down the line of women in the sensory neuron represented:

visual adaptation

Worthington described a client of his whose eyes wiggled. Worthington reassured the client that the client did not have brain damage due to his one-time use of pot. Worthington explained that his client's eyes wiggled to prevent

Magicians use an audience's perceptual set and assumptions to create illusions.

Worthington's magic trick was used to make the point that:

occurs in virtually everyone several times a day


hypnotized themselves

Worthington told about his suggestibility demonstration in previous years. Despite his warnings, students often

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