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discovered pacific ocean


explored the east coast of North America for England


Established Quebec for France.

Christopher Columbus

European who reached the islands of the Caribbean in 1492


Explored the Grand Canyon and the American Southwest


Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs

Bartholomeu Dias

Sailed to the southern tip of Africa

Hernando de Soto

Spanish explorer who discovered and claimed the Mississippi River for Spain

Leif Eriksson

First European to discover North America

Henry the Navigator

Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa. (p. 425)

King Henry

changed England into a protestant country

Martin Luther

Leader of the Protestant Reformation


This was the first person to lead an expedition that circumnavigated the world


Chief of the Aztec who was invaded by Cortes and Co.


Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas.

Marco Polo

Venetian traveler who travelled to China and wrote a book about it.

Ponce de Leon

sailed and discovered Florida and claimed it for Spain.

Queen Elizabeth I

daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; she succeeded the Catholic Mary I and restored Protestantism to England

Vasco de Gama

A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean

Amerigo Vespucci

The italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of america as a new world. America is named after him

The Crusades

A series of wars during the Central Middle Ages when Europe tried to take control of the Muslims' holy land. Led to trade with the Arabs.


a rebirth or revival of the arts.


pardon sold by catholic church to reduce one's punishment lots of money.

Protestant Reformation

a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

line of demarcation

imaginary line running north and south drawn by the pope to divide new lands claimed by Portugal and Spain

Treaty of Tordesillas

Treaty between Portugal and Spain re-negotiating the line of demarcation

Northwest Passage

quicker way west to Asia through the Americas


a group of Anglicans in England who wanted to purify their church of Catholic ways


rights to demand taxes or labor from Native Americans

Gold Coast

Southern coast of West Africa where gold was found

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of goods and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans

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