118 terms

Elements of Narrative

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Action
unfolding or sequence of events
Character
a being of the story that has agency and volition, a will and an ability to act.
Components of Narrative
Narrative discourse (sjuzet) and story (fabula)
Components of Story
entities and events (subcategory= setting)
Constituent Events
"nuclei/kernels" are turning points in the story and crucial events that lead to other events.
Direct Discourse
dialogue and exact words. citing a character's own words.
Embedded Narrative
a smaller, or any other narrative within a another narrative. Ex. Malvolio's plan.
Entities
"characters" beings with capability to act with intention.
Framing Narrative (frame)
a narrative that holds another; a containing narrative. Frames can be frames of references that audiences bring with them, or the film frame that places the story within what is shown and what is implied through the camera.
Genre
Recurring literary form.
Hypertext Narrative
electronic links that lead to more narratives. Narratologicall connecting the world as a common, larger story (Meta). Defies order and linearity.
Linearity
stories will always be linear, because they are a series of chronological events, but the narrative discourse is not confined by linearity, it can jump around.
Masterplot
recurrent skeletal story that belongs to specific culture. It plays a powerful role in questions of identity, value, truth, and self-understanding.
Motif
recurring specific element, word, or phrase
Narrative
the representation of an event or series of events.
Narrative Discourse
the events of a story represented; how the story unfolds. Compilation of order, point of view, voice, and diction.
Narrativity
as events come together, there is a sense of a story. The degree to which the text generates the impression that it is a narrative. Has a common entity and a recoverable order of events.
Narratology
Systematic study of narrative/ analysis of the relationship of elements involved in telling a story.
Normaliztion
bringing a collection of events into narrative coherence. The rhetorical power of the narrative to suggest that it's true.
paratext
influential tidbits of story found outside the text, but pertain to the text and are still part of the narrative, but are outside the narrative (medium of otherwise).
Stereotype
when a type does not come to life in a narrative and we see the character only as a formulaic character.
Story
Chronological sequence of events.
Supplementary Events
"catalyzers/satellites"= not necessary for the story; are not crucial to the structure of the story; they can be removed and it wouldn't affect the outcome.
Agon (Conflict)
A contest. driving force of the narrative. Struggle with power at stake.
Closure
When the narrative resolves conflict (usually at the end). Satisfies expectation and answers questions.
Suspense
Uncertainty and a desire to diminish it-- to know about how the story will develop. Much of the art of writing narrative lies in resolving suspense with surprise. Our desire to know the last chronological event.
Causation
rhetorical power to suggest that one thing causes another, often in a linear design.
Protagonist
hero of the conflict.
Antagonist
hero's opponent, can be a villain. Not always a human character.
Expectations
code, templates, genres, and masterplots that authors work with to fulfill and frustrate.
Narrator
the speaker of the story. is not the author. is an instrument a construction and device wielded by the author.
Direct Thought
we hear the character's voice (italics)
Indirect thought
we only hear the narrator relaying the character's thoughts.
Interior monologue
trying to replicate what goes on in someones head.
free indirect style
is a thought report, is tageless and quotation mark-less.
voice
who is it we hear? first, second, or third person. character or non-character?
Focaliztion
point of view. how are we seeing the story. think of a camera lens.
distance
the narrator's degree of involvement in the story being told. how close a narrator is determines the reliabilty.
diegesis
the world of the story, storyworld/narrative world.
homodiegetic
narration that comes from a character in the storyworld.
heterodiegetic
narration from outside the narrative, framing wise-- think Chaucer character.
extradiegetic
narration from outside the storyworld.
Reliability
to what extent can we rely on the narrator to give us an accurate rendering of the facts? sometimes the narrators opinions are such that we cannot trust the rendering of the story they give us.
Discordant narrators
narrators whom we trust for facts, but not for their interpretation.
Free Indirect Discourse
A kind of ventriliquism. a different voice while maintaining a third person characters voice. thoughts take over the discourse.
Stream of Consciousness
a continual stream of associated thoughts without rational ordering and permeated by changing feelings.
Author
the flesh and blood person writing the story.
Implied author
the idea of the author, our impression of the sensibility constructed by the reader from the text.
Persona
mask. closest we get the implied author.
interpretation
expressing the meaning communicated. meaning is a compound of ideas and judgments. (where judgment is attunement of feelings to its object)
Omniscient Narration
Narrator is assumed to know everything. Does not always mean 3rd person narration. Can employ shifts in focalization.
Overreading
cued by masterplots, is when we read meaning into the text that is not backed up textually.
Intentional Reading
Reading designed to garner meaning from what the implied author intended to place in the text. Not the author, but what the text says about the author. Power comes from readers and not from rhetoric.
Gaps
the inevitable voids in a narrative that the reader must fill with their imagination or experience.
cruxes
Oft-debated element in a work that depending on how we interpret it, can effect how we interpret the work as a whole.
Theme
implicit motifs. an abstract subject that recurs in a narrative.
Underreading
Overlooking of textual clues that could potentially add to the meaning that the implied author intended readers to find. Reading too quickly...
Symptomatic reading
not grounded with the implied author. symptomatic of the author's state of mind or any unacknowledged cultural conditions. at odds w/ intentional readings. thrive on repetitions, see patterns in an artists work. place greater weight on paratextual material. meaning found behind the narrative.
Intertextuality
all texts are made out of other texts. what is inescapable and what is intentional? Whereas allusions and imitations are intentional.
Adaptive Reading
how far can a text be taken and changed until it ceases being the original? another creative product adapted from the original text. a rewrite or an embellishment. our interpretation of the story.
Allusion
a reference without explicit identification to a person, place, event, or other literary/historic work.
Type Scenes
in the Hebrew narrative, a kind of motif that is a whole scene. gives echos and suggests meaning. Attaches characters to larger theological implications.
Paricope
short story within the gospels.
agency
the ability for characters to cause things to happen
flat characters
can be summed up in a phrase and have no hidden complexity. one dominating characteristic.
round characters
can't be summed up easily. have degrees of complexity.
Types
all characterization, however round, involves some flattening compressing people to types denies them their full humanity. effective in satire. recurring character.
autobiography
the chosen constituent events that make up a person's narrative/life. performative life writing.
Eponymous Character
title character. often the focalization.
Analepsis
flashback.
Shadow Stories
possible scenarios (don't have to know the whole story/don't have to know the outcome) in cases, just have to show they didn't do it.
Narrative Contestation
the agon itself is the conflict of the narrative
Fiction
story and discourse not confined to reality. cannot be falsifiable.
Non-fiction
reference to reality, a story, and a discourse.
Principal of Minimal Departure
until told otherwise, readers assume the world of the short story resembles our own.
Emplotment
the selection of what constituent events to include in non-fiction.
Adaptation
creative deconstruction. 1. borrowing (intertextuality). 2. intersecting (come as close to the original as possible) 3. transforming (seeks to deploy full cinematic power maintain original and make a transformation to a new medium)
Retardation
degree of slowing down of narrative discourse to adapt to a different medium.
Chronotope
Bakhtin's multidimensional term for the complex ways in which narrative time "thickens" as it moves along. More and more is told, more and more is learned.
forking-path narratives
like choose your own adventure novels. narrative in which two or more incompatible worlds cohabit in the same diegetic level.
prolepsis
flashforward.
gutter
the space between two panels of comic strip in which the reader must infer the action not shown. (gap). reader must imagine the events unfolding in time.
Metalepsis
a violation of the narrative levels of the diegesis. an invasion by an entity or entities from one narrative level to another.
Narration
The telling of a story or part of a story. activity of the narrator.
Medium
the vehicle conveying the narrative. written, film, paint, fabric, bodies...
Melodrama
sensational narratives that use flat characters good or bad who often speak in overwrought language. derogatory.
Montage
French for "assembly" the art of editing film into disparate shots one after another.
Suspended Disbelief
we allow ourselves to get caught up in a story, when we know it is not real.
Narrative negotiation
an examination and identification of the major conflicts of the narrative and thinking them through and seeing if they pan out and offer closure (they may not).
Authorial intention
the author's intended meanings or effects. ultimately indeterminable.
Anomalous Suspense
The phenomena of feeling suspense while reading a familiar work when you know exactly what's going to happen.
Beginning
is not the same for narrative discourse as it is for story. epic narratives tend to start in medias res.
Direct style
direct expression of a characters speech or thought either tagged or untagged. set off by indicators.
Event
fundamental unit of action. can be an act or a happening.
Fabula
story. chronological sequence of events.
First-person narration
narration by a character who plays a role in the story. Tell the story from their focalization, point of view.
Implied author
not the real author. not the narrator. the idea of the author as constructed by the reader as they read the narrative. the sensibility and moral intelligence that the reader gradually constructs. to infer the intended meanings and effects of the narrative.
implied reader
the intended recipients of the narrative, not exactly you and i.
Indirect discourse
speech of thinking of a character rendered in the narrator's own words, a thought report. no quotation marks.
Performative
what a narrative does, how it functions in the world, intentionally or unintentionally on display.
Repetition
the recurrence in narrative of images, ideas, situations, kinds of characters. signs of meaning.
Persona
"mask" the personality constructed by an author to narrate a story.
Second-Person narration
"you"
Setting
all those elements serving as a background in a narrative's storyworld.
Sjuzet
The order of a sequence of events. narrative discourse.
text
physical embodiment of the narrative.
Third-person narration
narrator is not a character in the story. can be omniscient. focalization.
unreliable narrator
a narrator whose perception and moral sensibilities differ from those of the implied author. degrees.
Primacy Effect
an effect psychologist describe as our tendency to privilege, in our memory of a narrative the first impression we develop in our reading or witnessing of it. Leads us to underread.
Metanarrative
the narrative of us. the narrative of our narratives. The human narrative. a way to explain all of life.
Bottom-up determination
from the text, you can determine it is a narrative
top-down determination
you need to category in advance, we need the label that says "memoir/novel" to know what it is.
insight
truth, in terms of truth of meaning, in narrative fiction.
illusion
traditional literary studies, instructive and delightful, postmodern world says we can only get at life through narratives. hard postermodernism says we have to access to referential reality.
Narrative Jamming
when a narrative arouses and then refuses to satisfy our narrative perceptions. Not enough detail to actually construct a narrative from.
Reality Effect
details/versimiltude/ author can attempt to create the reality effect, applies to fiction, the degree to which something seems real. The details in a narrative that convince us it's true.
Simulacrum
a fictional world that represents the real. is not the real world.
Propter Hoc Fallacy
a logical fallacy states that "since that event followed this one, that event must have been caused by this one"