a being of the story that has agency and volition, a will and an ability to act.
Components of Narrative
Narrative discourse (sjuzet) and story (fabula)
Components of Story
entities and events (subcategory= setting)
"nuclei/kernels" are turning points in the story and crucial events that lead to other events.
dialogue and exact words. citing a character's own words.
a smaller, or any other narrative within a another narrative. Ex. Malvolio's plan.
"characters" beings with capability to act with intention.
Framing Narrative (frame)
a narrative that holds another; a containing narrative. Frames can be frames of references that audiences bring with them, or the film frame that places the story within what is shown and what is implied through the camera.
Recurring literary form.
electronic links that lead to more narratives. Narratologicall connecting the world as a common, larger story (Meta). Defies order and linearity.
stories will always be linear, because they are a series of chronological events, but the narrative discourse is not confined by linearity, it can jump around.
recurrent skeletal story that belongs to specific culture. It plays a powerful role in questions of identity, value, truth, and self-understanding.
recurring specific element, word, or phrase
the representation of an event or series of events.
the events of a story represented; how the story unfolds. Compilation of order, point of view, voice, and diction.
as events come together, there is a sense of a story. The degree to which the text generates the impression that it is a narrative. Has a common entity and a recoverable order of events.
Systematic study of narrative/ analysis of the relationship of elements involved in telling a story.
bringing a collection of events into narrative coherence. The rhetorical power of the narrative to suggest that it's true.
influential tidbits of story found outside the text, but pertain to the text and are still part of the narrative, but are outside the narrative (medium of otherwise).
when a type does not come to life in a narrative and we see the character only as a formulaic character.
Chronological sequence of events.
"catalyzers/satellites"= not necessary for the story; are not crucial to the structure of the story; they can be removed and it wouldn't affect the outcome.
A contest. driving force of the narrative. Struggle with power at stake.
When the narrative resolves conflict (usually at the end). Satisfies expectation and answers questions.
Uncertainty and a desire to diminish it-- to know about how the story will develop. Much of the art of writing narrative lies in resolving suspense with surprise. Our desire to know the last chronological event.
rhetorical power to suggest that one thing causes another, often in a linear design.
hero of the conflict.
hero's opponent, can be a villain. Not always a human character.
code, templates, genres, and masterplots that authors work with to fulfill and frustrate.
the speaker of the story. is not the author. is an instrument a construction and device wielded by the author.
we hear the character's voice (italics)
we only hear the narrator relaying the character's thoughts.
trying to replicate what goes on in someones head.
free indirect style
is a thought report, is tageless and quotation mark-less.
who is it we hear? first, second, or third person. character or non-character?
point of view. how are we seeing the story. think of a camera lens.
the narrator's degree of involvement in the story being told. how close a narrator is determines the reliabilty.
the world of the story, storyworld/narrative world.
narration that comes from a character in the storyworld.
narration from outside the narrative, framing wise-- think Chaucer character.
narration from outside the storyworld.
to what extent can we rely on the narrator to give us an accurate rendering of the facts? sometimes the narrators opinions are such that we cannot trust the rendering of the story they give us.
narrators whom we trust for facts, but not for their interpretation.
Free Indirect Discourse
A kind of ventriliquism. a different voice while maintaining a third person characters voice. thoughts take over the discourse.
Stream of Consciousness
a continual stream of associated thoughts without rational ordering and permeated by changing feelings.
the flesh and blood person writing the story.
the idea of the author, our impression of the sensibility constructed by the reader from the text.
mask. closest we get the implied author.
expressing the meaning communicated. meaning is a compound of ideas and judgments. (where judgment is attunement of feelings to its object)
Narrator is assumed to know everything. Does not always mean 3rd person narration. Can employ shifts in focalization.
cued by masterplots, is when we read meaning into the text that is not backed up textually.
Reading designed to garner meaning from what the implied author intended to place in the text. Not the author, but what the text says about the author. Power comes from readers and not from rhetoric.
the inevitable voids in a narrative that the reader must fill with their imagination or experience.
Oft-debated element in a work that depending on how we interpret it, can effect how we interpret the work as a whole.
implicit motifs. an abstract subject that recurs in a narrative.
Overlooking of textual clues that could potentially add to the meaning that the implied author intended readers to find. Reading too quickly...
not grounded with the implied author. symptomatic of the author's state of mind or any unacknowledged cultural conditions. at odds w/ intentional readings. thrive on repetitions, see patterns in an artists work. place greater weight on paratextual material. meaning found behind the narrative.
all texts are made out of other texts. what is inescapable and what is intentional? Whereas allusions and imitations are intentional.
how far can a text be taken and changed until it ceases being the original? another creative product adapted from the original text. a rewrite or an embellishment. our interpretation of the story.
a reference without explicit identification to a person, place, event, or other literary/historic work.
in the Hebrew narrative, a kind of motif that is a whole scene. gives echos and suggests meaning. Attaches characters to larger theological implications.
short story within the gospels.
the ability for characters to cause things to happen
can be summed up in a phrase and have no hidden complexity. one dominating characteristic.
can't be summed up easily. have degrees of complexity.
all characterization, however round, involves some flattening compressing people to types denies them their full humanity. effective in satire. recurring character.
the chosen constituent events that make up a person's narrative/life. performative life writing.
title character. often the focalization.
possible scenarios (don't have to know the whole story/don't have to know the outcome) in cases, just have to show they didn't do it.
the agon itself is the conflict of the narrative
story and discourse not confined to reality. cannot be falsifiable.
reference to reality, a story, and a discourse.
Principal of Minimal Departure
until told otherwise, readers assume the world of the short story resembles our own.
the selection of what constituent events to include in non-fiction.
creative deconstruction. 1. borrowing (intertextuality). 2. intersecting (come as close to the original as possible) 3. transforming (seeks to deploy full cinematic power maintain original and make a transformation to a new medium)
degree of slowing down of narrative discourse to adapt to a different medium.
Bakhtin's multidimensional term for the complex ways in which narrative time "thickens" as it moves along. More and more is told, more and more is learned.
like choose your own adventure novels. narrative in which two or more incompatible worlds cohabit in the same diegetic level.
the space between two panels of comic strip in which the reader must infer the action not shown. (gap). reader must imagine the events unfolding in time.
a violation of the narrative levels of the diegesis. an invasion by an entity or entities from one narrative level to another.
The telling of a story or part of a story. activity of the narrator.
the vehicle conveying the narrative. written, film, paint, fabric, bodies...
sensational narratives that use flat characters good or bad who often speak in overwrought language. derogatory.
French for "assembly" the art of editing film into disparate shots one after another.
we allow ourselves to get caught up in a story, when we know it is not real.
an examination and identification of the major conflicts of the narrative and thinking them through and seeing if they pan out and offer closure (they may not).
the author's intended meanings or effects. ultimately indeterminable.
The phenomena of feeling suspense while reading a familiar work when you know exactly what's going to happen.
is not the same for narrative discourse as it is for story. epic narratives tend to start in medias res.
direct expression of a characters speech or thought either tagged or untagged. set off by indicators.
fundamental unit of action. can be an act or a happening.
story. chronological sequence of events.
narration by a character who plays a role in the story. Tell the story from their focalization, point of view.
not the real author. not the narrator. the idea of the author as constructed by the reader as they read the narrative. the sensibility and moral intelligence that the reader gradually constructs. to infer the intended meanings and effects of the narrative.
the intended recipients of the narrative, not exactly you and i.
speech of thinking of a character rendered in the narrator's own words, a thought report. no quotation marks.
what a narrative does, how it functions in the world, intentionally or unintentionally on display.
the recurrence in narrative of images, ideas, situations, kinds of characters. signs of meaning.
"mask" the personality constructed by an author to narrate a story.
all those elements serving as a background in a narrative's storyworld.
The order of a sequence of events. narrative discourse.
physical embodiment of the narrative.
narrator is not a character in the story. can be omniscient. focalization.
a narrator whose perception and moral sensibilities differ from those of the implied author. degrees.
an effect psychologist describe as our tendency to privilege, in our memory of a narrative the first impression we develop in our reading or witnessing of it. Leads us to underread.
the narrative of us. the narrative of our narratives. The human narrative. a way to explain all of life.
from the text, you can determine it is a narrative
you need to category in advance, we need the label that says "memoir/novel" to know what it is.
truth, in terms of truth of meaning, in narrative fiction.
traditional literary studies, instructive and delightful, postmodern world says we can only get at life through narratives. hard postermodernism says we have to access to referential reality.
when a narrative arouses and then refuses to satisfy our narrative perceptions. Not enough detail to actually construct a narrative from.
details/versimiltude/ author can attempt to create the reality effect, applies to fiction, the degree to which something seems real. The details in a narrative that convince us it's true.
a fictional world that represents the real. is not the real world.
Propter Hoc Fallacy
a logical fallacy states that "since that event followed this one, that event must have been caused by this one"