Psychology 101 Final Exam
A collection of flash cards gathered from general psychology 101 classes. Useful for studying fo a final exam.
Terms in this set (114)
the events, characteristics, behaviors, or conditions that researchers measure and study.
subject or participant
an individual person or animal a researcher studies.
a collection of subjects researchers study. Researchers use samples because they cannot study the entire population.
the collection of people or animals from which researchers draw a sample. Researchers study the sample and generalize their results to the population.
The Purpose of Research
-To find ways to measure and describe behavior
-To understand why, when, and how events occur
-To apply this knowledge to solving real-world problems
The scientific method
a standardized way of making observations, gathering data, forming theories, testing predictions, and interpreting results.
an explanation that organizes separate pieces of information in a coherent way.
when others can repeat an experiment and get the same results.
a testable prediction of what will happen given a certain set of conditions.
researchers collect information about subjects by observing them unobtrusively, without interfering with them in any way.
The researcher collects data about the subject through interviews, direct observation, psychological testing, or examination of documents and records about the subject.
a way of getting information about a specific type of behavior, experience, or event. When using this method, researchers give people questionnaires or interview them to obtain information.
a researcher manipulates or changes a particular variable under controlled conditions while observing resulting changes in another variable or variables.
maintains that researchers should apply the simplest explanation possible to any set of observations.
measurement of the strength of the relationship between two variables
if a test produces the same result when researchers administer it to the same group of people at different times, it has reliability.
A test is valid if it actually measures the quality it claims to measure.
the distortion of results by a variable. Common types of bias include sampling bias, subject bias, and experimenter bias.
the process by which physical energy from objects in the world or in the body stimulates the sense organs
The brain interprets and organizes this sensory information in a process called perception
the minimum amount of stimulation required for a person to detect the stimulus 50 percent of the time.
the smallest difference in stimulation that can be detected 50 percent of the time. sometimes called the just noticeable difference (jnd).
a principle demonstrating the fact that we can't detect the difference between two stimuli unless they differ by a certain proportion and that this proportion is constant.
the decrease in sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus.
The long, narrow cells, called rods, are highly sensitive to light and allow vision even in dim conditions
cone-shaped cells that can distinguish between different wavelengths of light, allowing people to see in color. Remember (C)ones, (C)olor.
receptors that are inside taste buds, which in turn are inside little bumps on the skin called Papillae. Used to taste
the sense of the position and movement of body parts.
states that pain signals traveling from the body to the brain must go through a gate in the spinal cord. If the gate is closed, pain signals can't reach the brain. The gate isn't a physical structure like a fence gate, but rather a pattern of neural activity that either stops pain signals or allows them to pass. Signals from the brain can open or shut the gate. For example, focusing on pain tends to increase it, whereas ignoring the pain tends to decrease it.
a complex, highly coordinated network of tissues that communicate via electro chemical signals
cushions and nourishes the brain
protects the cerebrospinal fluid by blocking many drugs and toxins.
connects the brain to the rest of the body
which are automatic behaviors that require no input from the brain.
peripheral nervous system.
The peripheral nervous system has two parts: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
somatic nervous system
consists of nerves that connect the central nervous system to voluntary skeletal muscles and sense organs.
autonomic nervous system
consists of nerves that connect the central nervous system to the heart, blood vessels, glands, and smooth muscles
make up the support structure of the nervous system, perform four functions:
-Provide structural support to the neurons
-Remove waste products
the communicators of the nervous system. Neurons receive information, integrate it, and pass it along
Cell body of a neuron
receive information from other neurons or from sense organs.
send information to other neurons, to muscle cells, or to gland cells
A fatty coating covering segments on the outside of an Axon
The junction between an axon of one neuron and the cell body or dendrite of a neighboring neuron
For a limited time, there are more positively charged ions inside than in the resting state. This creates an action potential, which is a short-lived change in electric charge inside the neuron.
lies next to the spinal cord and controls functions outside conscious.
a sensory way station. All sensory information except smell-related data must go through the thalamus on the way to the cerebrum.
lies under the thalamus and helps to control the pituitary gland and the autonomic nervous system.
includes the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the septum
the biggest part of the brain, controls complex processes such as abstract thought and learning.
made up of hormone-secreting glands, also affects communication inside the body
chemicals that help to regulate bodily functions.
biological cycles that occur about every twenty-four hours. Sleep follows a circadian rhythm. Hormone secretion, blood pressure, body temperature, and urine production also have circadian rhythms.
There are five distinct stages of sleep in each cycle: 1, 2, 3, 4, and REM
People who have sleep apnea stop breathing many times during a night's sleep, and each time they stop breathing, they wake up briefly and gasp for air.
also called "respondent conditioning" or "Pavlovian conditioning," a subject comes to respond to a neutral stimulus as he would to another, nonneutral stimulus by learning to associate the two stimuli.
is the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response.
the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus returns after a period of absence.
the tendency to respond to a new stimulus as if it were the original conditioned stimulus
the tendency to lack a conditioned response to a new stimulus that resembles the original conditioned stimulus.
the process by which a neutral stimulus comes to act as a conditioned stimulus by being paired with another stimulus that already evokes a conditioned response.
a type of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences. Operant responses are often new responses.
delivery of a consequence that increases the likelihood that a response will occur
the presentation of a stimulus after a response so that the response will occur more often
the removal of a stimulus after a response so that the response will occur more often.
the delivery of a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a response will occur
the presentation of a stimulus after a response so that the response will occur less often
is the removal of a stimulus after a response so that the response will occur less often.
reinforcement happens after a set number of responses, such as when a car salesman earns a bonus after every three cars he sells.
reinforcement happens after a particular average number of responses.
reinforcement happens after a set amount of time
reinforcement happens after a particular average amount of time.
the process of learning to respond in a particular way by watching others, who are called models.
Processing information into memory
focuses on what words look like. For instance, one might note whether words are long or short, in uppercase or lowercase, or handwritten or typed.
focuses on how words sound.
focuses on the meaning of words.
stores incoming sensory information in detail but only for an instant. The capacity of sensory memory is very large, but the information in it is unprocessed. If a flashlight moves quickly in a circle inside a dark room, people will see a circle of light rather than the individual points through which the flashlight moved.
Visual sensory memory
auditory sensory memory
has a limited capacity: it can store about seven pieces of information, plus or minus two pieces. Can be repeated to form long-term memory
combines small bits of information into bigger, familiar pieces.
information in long-term memory usually stays there for the duration of a person's life.
the process of getting information out of memory.
recalling a particular word becomes easier if another, related word is recalled first.
unconscious retention of information
conscious, intentional remembering of information.
recall of factual information such as dates, words, faces, events, and concepts.
recall of how to do things such as swimming or driving a car.
recall of general facts
recall of personal facts
is the proportion of learned information that is retained or remembered—the flip side of forgetting
remembering without any external cues
identifying learned information using external cues.
memory fades with time.
has a better account of why people lose long-term memories. According to this theory, people forget information because of interference from other learned information.
happens when newly learned information makes people forget old information.
happens when old information makes people forget newly learned information.
pushing unpleasant or intolerable thoughts and feelings deep into their unconscious
a mental model of an object or event that includes knowledge as well as beliefs and expectations
occurs when people's recollections of events are distorted by information given to them after the event occurred.
the tendency to interpret the past in a way that fits the present.
the tendency people have to overestimate their ability to recall events correctly.
When people claim to remember something that didn't happen or think that something happened to them when it actually happened to someone else.
states that psychological disorders result from an interaction between biological and environmental factors. According to this model, individuals who have a biological vulnerability to a particular disorder will have the disorder only if certain environmental stressors are present.
theorizes that psychological disorders result from the reinforcement of abnormal behavior.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A person with generalized anxiety disorder experiences persistent and excessive anxiety or worry that lasts at least six months.
A person who has specific phobia experiences intense anxiety when exposed to a particular object or situation
A person who has social phobia experiences intense anxiety when exposed to certain kinds of social or performance situations.
A person with panic disorder experiences recurrent, unexpected panic attacks, which cause worry or anxiety
involves anxiety about losing control in public places, being in situations from which escape would be difficult or embarrassing, or being in places where there might be no one to help if a panic attack occurred.
A person with obsessive-compulsive disorder experiences obsessions, compulsions, or both.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
A person with this disorder persistently re-experiences a highly traumatic event and avoids stimuli associated with the trauma.
involves at least one distinct period when a person exhibits manic symptoms. Manic symptoms include any or all of the following:
Feelings of being high
Decreased need for sleep
Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
Fast and pressured speech
Increased interest in pleasurable activities that have the potential for harmful consequences.