50 terms

anthro final

final exam
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Which is NOT a reason that archaeology, of all the subfields of anthropology, is the most distinct?
it is essentially the popular activity of art collecting
Prehistoric Archaeology is concerned with archaeological investigations of societies that existed prior to the beginning of written history. As a result:
All of the above
Historical archaeology refers to the study of:
begins with the beginning of written history in the region under investigation
When we interpret some archaeological data by observing similar artifacts in use among living cultures, we call it:
ethnographic analogy
Which best describes the overall goal of archaeology?
the reconstruction of past cultural systems
Test pits are used to:
determine if a potential site is a site and to decide exactly where to dig
In terms of anthropological value, the single most important aspect of an archaeological dig is:
complete and accurate record-keeping
Which of the following is used to establish horizontal control at a site?
a grid system
Non-removable artifacts, such as, hearts, pits, & walls are referred to by archaeologists as?
Features
An artifact is defined as?
An object made or modified by humans
Modern archaeologists' most fundamental desires are to?
Understand the human past
Historical archaeologists in American focus on?
Immigrants who arrived in the last 500 years
The first steps taken in most archaeological excavation is to:
Establish a datum & grid pattern system
"Middens" are an archaeological term for:
Ancient trash piles
Most of the artifacts that make up the archaeological record are
garbage
Which refers to a kind of artifact, but is differentiated because they cannot be easily removed from an archaeological site?
features
Pits are by far the most common
features
What do archaeologists and paleoanthropologists usually restrict their search to?
sites
What is created when the remnants of human activity are covered or buried by some natural process?
sites
What allows archaeologists to recover a full range of artifacts and other materials while only excavating a small portion of a site?
sampling
The "reading" of the archaeological record is called
analysis
What refers to the relationship between and among artifacts and other materials?
context
In anthropology, the term "culture" refers to
all the learned behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, values and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population
The anthropological attitude that a society's customs and ideas should be described objectively and understood in the context of that society's problems and opportunities is called
cultural relativism
The opinion that one's own way of life is natural or correct and the only true way of being fully human is _______________.
ethnocentrism
An extended period during which the anthropologist gathers data is called __________________________.
fieldwork
A society's techniques for acquiring food resources it its:
Subsistence Pattern
science is:
a method of inquiry
In science, a proposed explanation for some natural phenomenon is called a(n):
hypothesis
To refer to something as a theory means that it:
has been well supported by scientific testing
A unique research strategy of anthropologists which involves learning the language and culture of a group by participating in the group's daily activities is called
participant observation
The systematic study of the material remains of human behavior in the past is conducted by:
archaeologists
The portable material products of former societies are known as:
artifacts
_____ dating techniques place artifacts and sites in a general chronological order, though the exact date can be often unknown.
Archaeolgical
The context of an artifact is important for an archaeologist to know because:
context can reveal valuable information about the artifact's use, age, and relationship to other artifacts and features
Which of the following is not a Hollywood stereotype of archaeologists?
Archaeologists are trained professionals who try to reconstruct human behavior in the past
Although most anthropologists agree on where Native Americans originated, they disagree about:
when the population migrations actually took place
The site of Meadowcroft Rock Shelter has provided evidence to suggest that:
people were living in what is now the eastern US (near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) earlier than the well-dated "Clovis" people lived in North America
The durable aspects of culture such as tools, structures, and art are known as _______________.
material culture
Because it is something someone made, archaeologists like to say that a(n) _______________ is a product of human behavior.
artifact
The purpose of a grid system is _______________.
to record the exact location of an artifact accurately, both horizontally and vertically
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
none of the above is incorrect (all are correct)
A place that indicates the presence of human occupants in the past (for example, evidence of a temporary hunting camp or more permanent village) is called an archaeological _______________.
site
A system for recording the excavation of artifacts in which the excavation area is divided into squares and the contents of each square are carefully recorded is called _______________.
a grid system
Archaeologists get clues about how an artifact was used by _______________.
analyzing its shape and signs of wear and tear
Which of the following is not true of science?
It always provides the right answer to a question.
It is essential that archaeologists take abundant, accurate, and detailed field notes during excavations because:
Archaeology destroys data as it is gathered; once a site is excavated it cannot be re-excavated.
A test excavation would be most appropriate in which of the following situations?
When trying to determine a site's potential for answering a research question.
When archaeologists dig excavation units, they are concerned with:
all of the above
Why do archaeologists use a datum point rather than simply measuring from the ground surface?
The datum point provides a universal reference point that can be used across any archaeological site, allowing archaeologists to easily compare data between excavations.