LEGL 4355 Chapter 12: Offenses Against Public Order, Safety, and National Security
Terminology Set For - Criminal Law and Procedure, Eighth Edition: John M. Scheb II
Terms in this set (40)
Wrongfully seizing control of an aircraft by force, violence, the threat of force or violence, or any other form of intimidation.
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act
A federal statute designed to effectuate reforms in administration of the death penalty by curtailing successive petitions for habeas corpus by prisoners sentenced to death.
Legislation passed by Congress in 1993 requiring a five-day waiting period before the purchase of a handgun, during which time a background check of the buyer is conducted.
Breaches of the peace
Crimes that disturb the public tranquility and order; a generic term encompassing disorderly encompassing disorderly conduct, riot, etc.
Noncriminal violations of a law; often refers to minor traffic violations.
A weapon carried on or about a person in such a manner as to hide it from the ordinary sight of another person.
Local laws requiring people, typically minors, to be off the streets by a certain time of night.
Decriminalization of routine traffic offenses
The recent trend toward treating minor motor vehicle offenses - for example, speeding - as civil infractions rather than crimes.
Illegal behavior that disturbs the public peace or order.
The crime of turning over state secrets to a foreign government.
Unnecessarily loud sounds that interfere with the public peace and endanger the public, health, and welfare; sounds emitted that exceed the levels permitted by law or ordinance.
Federal Anti-Riot Act
A federal law enacted in 1968 that made it a crime to travel or use interstate or foreign commerce facilities in connection with inciting, participating in, or aiding acts of violence.
Federal Gun Control Act
A federal law prohibiting firearms dealers from transferring handguns to people who are younger than twenty-one, nonresidents of the dealer's state, and those who are otherwise prohibited by state or local laws from purchasing or possessing firearms. IT also forbids possession of a firearm by, and transfer of a firearm to, people in a number of categories, including convicted felons, users of controlled substances, those adjudicated as incompetent or committed to mental institutions, illegal aliens, those dishonorably discharged from the military, those who have renounced their citizenship, and fugitives from justice.
Gun control laws
Laws regulating the manufacture, importation, sale, distribution, possession, or use of firearms.
Gun-Free School Zones Act
Federal statute making it a crime "for any individual knowingly to possess a firearm at a place that the individual knows, or has reasonable cause to believe, is a school zone." This law was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme court in United States v. Lopez (1995).
Violations of criminal provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act, a federal law that relates to immigration.
Inciting a riot
The crime of instigating or provoking a riot.
Standing around idly; "hanging out."
Mandatory child restraint laws
Laws requiring that children below a specified age be restrained by approved safety devices when riding in automobiles.
Mandatory seat belt laws
Laws requiring automobile drivers and passengers to wear seat belts.
Motor vehicle violations
Minor crimes or infractions involving the operation of motor vehicles.
Under the law of nations, a robbery at sea.
Begging for money in public.
An offense that in and of itself justifies police stopping and citing or arresting a motorist.
A public disturbance involving acts of violence, usually by three or more persons.
At common law, a disturbance of the peace that was similar to a riot but failed to carry out the intended purpose.
Rules of the road
Rules for the operation of motor vehicles on the public streets.
The crime of infiltrating and destroying a nation's war-making capabilities.
An offense that does not in and of itself justify police stopping and citing a motorist. Police can issue a citation for a secondary offense only if they have stopped a driver for a primary offense.
The crime of advocating or working toward the violent overthrow of one's own government.
The crime of inflicting terror on a population through the indiscriminate killing of people and destruction of property, often with explosive devices.
Texting while driving
The offense of using a cell phone or other handheld device to send text messages or emails while operating a motor vehicle.
Court of limited jurisdiction whose main function is the adjudication of traffic offenses and other minor misdemeanors.
The crime of making war against one's own government or giving aid and comfort to it enemies.
A group of individuals, usually five or more, assembled to commit an unlawful act or to commit a lawful act in an unlawful manner.
USA PATRIOT Act
Controversial act of Congress enacted in 2001 to strengthen the federal government's efforts to combat terrorism.
The common-law offense of going about without any visible means of support.
Weapons of mass destruction
Weapons designed to kill large numbers of people and/or damage extensive areas. Includes nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical weapons.
Violations of laws restricting or prohibiting the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, or use of certain firearms.
This phrase, from the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, refers to a citizen army subject to government regulations. In the early history of the United States, the militia was the set of able-bodied men who could be pressed into military service by the governor of the state. The National Guard is its modern counterpart.
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