293 terms

exam 4

Social control refers to techniques and strategies for preventing_______in any society.
deviant behavior
_______refers to the techniques and strategies for regulating human behavior in any society?
deviant behavior
What social groups have a role in maintaining social control?
Family, peer groups, college establishments, and the government
Sanctions are:
penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm
Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm are known as
The_____perspective emphasizes that societies literally could not survive if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?
A high school student pierces her tongue and her belly button because three of her best friends have done the same thing. This is an example of
refers to going along with one's peers (individuals of a person's own status), who have no special right to direct a person's behavior?
Obedience refers to:
compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.
_______refers to compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure?
Researcher________examined social obedience by conducting an experiment that required student subjects to administer "painful" shocks to subjects in an analysis of "learning"?
Stanley Milgram
Stanley Milgram conducted a study of obedience that required subjects to administer_______to other subjects in an analysis of "learning"
painful shocks
The managing editor of a newspaper, acting on an order from the publisher, fires three editors, one of whom is an old friend. This is an example of
According to the study by Stanley Milgram, individuals will
generally obey authority figures.
Social control carried out by people casually, through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule is known as
informal social control.
Jennifer is attending a business luncheon with several corporate executives. At one point during the meal, she reaches in front of another executive to get a saltshaker and hits the executive's arm as he is about to put a spoonful of soup in his mouth. The soup spills on his shirt, and he glares at Jennifer. The glare is an example of a (an):
informal social control
A college student interrupts the instructor during a seminar; the instructor responds with an angry glare. This is an example of:
informal social control
A person receives a smile for holding an elevator door for another person. This is an example of
informal social control
Spanking is supported by 59 percent of pediatricians in spite of the risk of harmful effects to individuals. Spanking is an example of
informal social control
Social control carried out by authorized agents--such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers--is called:
formal social control
Scott is arrested for "tagging," or "visual terrorism." The arrest is an example of a (an)
formal social control
A college student is caught cheating on an examination and is brought before a college-wide disciplinary committee, which decides to expel the student from the school. The committee's action is an example of
formal social control
A college fraternity is found guilty of having racist recruitment policies by the college's intrafraternity council and administration, and it is forced to suspend operations on that campus. This is an example of
formal social control
Law _____ from social norms
Law can be directed at____members of society
Law can______the behavior of social institutions
From a sociological perspective, laws are created in response to perceived needs for:
formal social control
Deviance is behavior that:
violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society is known as
According to the sociological definition of_____we are all deviant from time to time.
______involves the violation of group norms that may or may not be formalized into law.
Deviation from norms is not always______let alone criminal
A student sits in a front row, in a center seat in your sociology class and picks his or her nose throughout the class period. This is an example of
A student walks into your sociology class naked because it is hot outside. This is an example of
A student cheats on his or her first sociology examination. This is an example of
List three groups that are stigmatized in the United States today?
ugly, obese and anorexic people
Why are some groups or individuals stigmatized?
Because they do not conform to the beauty myth, these people may be viewed as "disfigured" or "strange" in appearance.
The ________perspective(s) would most likely be concerned with the stigmatizing nature of formal social controls that require convicted sex-offenders to register with police agencies and have their pictures published in newspapers to make their identity publicly known.
Early explanations for deviance focused strongly on:
supernatural causes or genetic factors
The contemporary study of possible genetic roots of criminality is but one aspect of the larger debate over______.
The genetic explanation of criminality is commonly________by sociologists
"Deviance defines the limits of proper behavior." This statement represents the view of which sociological perspective?
In Émile Durkheim's view, the punishments established within a culture help to define_______and thus contribute to social stability
acceptable behavior
___________noted that punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and contribute to societal stability
Emile Durkheim
________is a term used in sociological literature to describe a loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
An individual loses a job, a fortune, and a family during the Great Depression of the 1930s. This is an example of the sociological concept of_________.
________developed a theory of deviance that suggests that members of a society may conform or deviate from the culturally prescribed goals and the means of attaining those goals?
robert merton
The anomie theory of deviance was created by________.
robert merton
In his___________Robert Merton was creating a typology to explain the adaptation people make in accepting or rejecting the goals of a society
anomie theory of deviance
The most common adaptation in Merton's anomie theory of deviance is the
opposite of deviance
An innovator, according to Robert Merton, is an individual who has accepted the goals of a society but pursued them with_______regarded as improper.
An unemployed young adult wants a stereo, but he does not have the money or the means of earning the money that is needed to buy the stereo. His desire for the stereo overwhelms him and he steals one from a local store. This incident illustrates which theory of deviance?
Mergatroyd gets an "A" on his organic chemistry final examination because he copies most of his answers from Aloysius, the "class brain," who is sitting next to him. According to Merton's anomie theory of deviance, Mergatroyd would be classified as a (an)
In Merton's terms, people who overzealously and cruelly enforce bureaucratic regulations can be classified as
a rituaist
An employee at a welfare office is so concerned with paperwork that he does not have time to administer to the needs of the poor, hungry, and homeless individuals who seek assistance. According to Merton's theory, this welfare worker would be a (an):
A retreatist, according to Robert Merton, is an individual who has:
basically withdrawn (or "retreated") from both the goals and the means of society.
In Merton's terms, members of a revolutionary political organizations such as the Irish Republican Army (IRA) would be typically classified as:
the_________sociological perspective's approach to deviance focuses on why rule violation continues to exist in societies, despite pressures to conform and obey?
the________sociological perspective is reflected through the crime explanations offered in both cultural transmission and routine activities theory?
________theory was used by Edwin Sutherland to emphasize that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions with others?
cultural transmission
Meloise is in the shopping mall with her friends. Her friends begin to shoplift, and she engages in this behavior for the first time in order to retain their approval. According to Edwin Sutherland, Meloise's behavior is an example of
cultural transmission
__________used the term differential association to describe the process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to violations of rules?
differential association
Zephyr, a new student in a high school, becomes friends with a group of teenagers who use marijuana and sit during the singing of the National Anthem. Although Zephyr never used marijuana and used to sing the Anthem, she begins to engage in the same behavior as her new friends. According to Edwin Sutherland, her behavior is an example of________.

However, according to Robert Merton, her behavior is an example of_______.
differential behavior

Mick and Mike are brothers who have different friends. Mick's friends are the "academic type," and Mick follows in their footsteps and goes to college. Mike's friends engage in crime, and Mike follows in their footsteps and goes to prison. Which explanation of deviant behavior is illustrated by this example?
differential behavior
Jeff works in a supermarket as a cashier. His boss instructs him to include the price of a new broom that Jeff's boss has deceptively placed near the register, into everyone's total bill. Jeff's boss also encourages him to change dates on expired food items, so the items can be sold. Eventually, Jeff begins to develop his own deceptive sale practices. This is an example of
cultural transmission
Both cultural transmission theory and routine activities theory are associated with the________perspective.
__________theory contends that criminal victimization is increased when motivated offenders and suitable targets converge.
social disorganization
_________theory notes that homes left vacant during the day or during long vacations are more accessible as targets of crime.
social disorganization
sociologist_________examined two groups of high school males—the Saints and the Roughnecks—who illustrated the importance of social class standing in the labeling process.
William Chambliss
William Chambliss concluded that a key factor in the varying fortunes of the Saints and the Roughnecks was their differing
social class
The societal reaction approach is also known as the_______approach.
Regulators of social control would most likely be the focus of_______theorists researching the power of some individuals or groups to define labels.
Researchers have discovered that students who are viewed as having "learning difficulties" are viewed more positively by teachers than those students who are viewed as "mentally handicapped" or "mentally subnormal," although there is no difference between people placed in each of these categories. This illustrates which explanation(s) of deviance?
labeling theory
A sociologist studies how a teacher's attitudes toward students affect their performance. Students of similar abilities who are "teacher's pets" perform at a high level, and students who are viewed as "troublemakers" perform poorly. This illustrates which explanation of deviance?
labeling theory
sociologist________popularized an interactionist/conflict explanation of deviance that emphasizes that the response to an act, not the behavior, determines deviance?
Howard Becker
Which conflict sociologist argues that the criminal justice system serves the interests of the powerful and that lawmaking is often an attempt by the powerful to coerce others into their own morality?
Richard Quinney
An important tenet of labeling theory is the recognition that some individuals or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others. This view shares the emphasis on the social significance of power as purported by the:
conflict perspective
A man who is a bank president is found guilty of tax evasion. In addition to paying the government all the money he owes with substantial interest, he is sentenced to three years' probation and a $50,000 fine. At the same time, a female teller at the same bank is found guilty of stealing $500. The teller is sentenced to a prison term of no less than four years. This differential treatment would be a particular concern of which sociological perspective?
Crime is a violation of_______for which formal penalties are applied by some governmental authority
criminal law
A single woman who is engaged in illegal acts of prostitution for the purpose of supporting herself and children is most likely to be considered a________criminal.
Elliot, the president of a small corporation, has a wild weekend. He spends a night with a prostitute, illegally gambles, drinks, and uses drugs. Some would suggest he has committed various______crimes.
Feminist sociologists contend that the so-called victimless crime of prostitution, as well as the more disturbing aspects of pornography_______the misconception that women can be treated as "toys"
A professional criminal is:
a person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals.
An important aspect of a professional criminal's work is developing
skilled techniques
The work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in the smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other illegal activities is called
organized crime
_______is used to refer to crimes committed in the course of business activities?
white collar crime
A corporate vice president is convicted of attempting to bribe a presidential aide. This kind of crime is called
white collar crime
Conviction for a________crime does not generally harm a person's reputation and career aspirations nearly as much as a conviction for street crime.
white collar
Reported crime in the United States is high, and the public continues to regard crime as a_______social problem.
There has been a significant______in violent crime in the United States in recent years.
Underreporting of crime in the United States has been a problem because members of racial and ethnic minority groups have not always_______law enforcement agencies and have often_____from contacting the police
Which type of crime is unlikely to be reported in victimization surveys?
rape or spousal abuse
When Stanley Milgram conducted his study of obedience, nearly two-thirds of participants refused to administer shocks to a stranger even though the researcher said that it was a necessary part of the study.
Formal social controls are always carried out by the government.
Socialization is the primary source of conforming, obedient behavior, and obedience to the law.
Edwin Sutherland coined the term stigma to describe the labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups.
Recent sociological research supports the position that all forms of crime and deviance have genetic roots.
According to labeling theorists, it is the response to a behavior and not the behavior itself that determines deviance.
Labeling theory was conceived as a sole explanation for deviance, according to Howard Becker.
Repeated protests by feminist organizations resulted in changes concerning criminal laws defining rape
Crimes committed by women have fallen almost 14 percent since 1993.
Russia is the only country in the world that incarcerates a higher proportion of its citizens than the United States.
Tibetan women may have more than one husband simultaneously, which allows for:
their sons to share the limited amount of good land they may inherit.
_________is a term used to refer to organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.
Social institution
The United States government is an example of a______institution.
Functional prerequisites are:
replacing personnel, teaching new recruits, producing and distributing goods and services, preserving order, and providing and maintaining a sense of purpose.
The_______sociological perspective suggests that a society or a relatively permanent group must accomplish certain major tasks if it is to survive.
What important functional prerequisites was NOT fulfilled by the religious sect known as the Shakers?
Replacing personnel.
What social institution has primary responsibility for preserving order in society?
What social institution in the United States has the responsibility of "providing and maintaining a sense of purpose"?
The patriotic behavior of United States citizens after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. is a testament to the importance of:
providing and maintaining a sense of purpose.
The conflict view holds that social institutions maintain the privileges of the
most powerful individuals and groups in a society, while contributing to the powerlessness of others.
How does the textbook define family?
As a set of people who are related by blood, marriage(or some agreed upon relationship), or adoption who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society.
A set of people related by blood, marriage (or some other agreed-upon relationship), or adoption who share the responsibility for reproducing and caring for members of society is known as a
A married couple and their unmarried children living together constitute a (an):
nuclear family
A nuclear family is
a married couple and their unmarried child.
A man and his wife, their children, five Chinese shar-peis, four Siamese cats, eight parakeets, two ducks, a goat, and a dozen tropical fish live on a pretty piece of land in Woodstock, Vermont. They are an example of a (an)
nuclear family
What percentage of households in the U.S. today are nuclear family households?
An extended family is
a family in which relatives-such as grandparents, aunts or uncles live in the same home as parents and their children.
A woman and her husband, her children, her parents, her mother-in-law, her sister, a parakeet, two Irish setters, a cow, and five chickens live together on a farm in the Midwest. This is an example of a(n):
extended family
A married couple, their children, and other relatives -- such as grandparents, aunts, or uncles -- living together in the same household constitute a (an):
extended family
Beverly, her husband Bob, and their two children, Barry and Bonnie is an example of
Monogamy refers to a form of marriage in which:
one woman and one man are married only to each other.
A form of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to each other is known as
Ted and Tonya have been married to each other for 3 weeks. This is an example of
Cecil and Geneva were married on August 4, 1936, and they have spent all of those years arguing and fighting with one another. This is an example of:
What is the name of the marital form in which a person can have several spouses in his or her lifetime but can have only one spouse at a time?
serial monogamy
Serial monogamy refers to a form of marriage in which a person can have:
several spouses in his or her lifetime but can have only one spouse at a time.
Dave is married to Sheila, but they get divorced and he marries Marlene. After they get divorced, he marries Janet, and when she dies, he marries Lorraine. This is an example of______monogamy
Maria is married to Juan. Juan dies and Maria marries Carlos. This is an example of______monogamy.
A man who has entered the record books by being married and divorced more than 20 times would be an example of
serial monogamy
Steve and Mary are married and then get a divorce. Steve then marries Rachel and they get a divorce, too. Steve remarries Mary and lives with her until she dies. After Mary's death, Steve marries Beth and lives with her until his death. Steve's life would be an example of:
serial monogamy
What is the general term for a marriage in which an individual can have several husbands or wives at the same time?
Polygamy refers to a marital form in which:
an individual can have several husbands or wives at the same time.
The Oneida community existed in New York State from 1840 to 1880, and its members were all married to one another. That is, all the men in the community were married to all the women, and all the women were married to all the men. This highly religious community would be an example of
Anthropologist George Murdock sampled 565 societies and found that over____percent of them had some type of polygamy
George Murdock noted that 80 percent of the 565 societies that he studied
had some type of polygamy was the preferred form.
Which term refers to the marriage of a man to more than one woman at the same time?
In some forms of polygamy, men often marry a woman and her______.
In some societies, a man will marry a woman and her sisters; this is an example of:
Under which marital form can a woman have several husbands at the same time?
Polyandry refers to a marital form in which:
a woman can have several husbands at the same time.
only about_____percent of families in the United States are nuclear in composition.
The practice of polygamy steadily______throughout the twentieth century.
Polyandrous cultures devalue the______of women.
social worth
Some Tibetans and the Toda tribe of India practiced female infanticide, which led to a shortage of adult women. As a result, a family was often composed of a group of brothers and a wife, whom they shared. This is an example of:
The family is a______, and kin do not always live______.
household units
What pattern of descent is most typical in the United States?
Patrilineal descent refers to a:
favor of the father's relatives in terms of property, inheritance and emotional ties.
A kinship system that favors the relatives of the mother is called:
matrilineal descent
In a patriarchy _______ are expected to dominate family decision-making
In a patriarchy descent favors the relatives of the_______.
In what type of society do women hold greater authority than men?
A matriarchy
Matriarchies are common in societies where men are
among Native Americans tribal societies and in nations where men were absent for a long period, for warefare or food gathering expeditions
In some hunting-and-gathering societies, men are away from home for long periods of time. As a result, it is not unusual to find women being responsible for the household and most of the major family decisions. In these societies, what pattern of authority is evident?
Women dominate in family desision making
An authority pattern in which the adult members of the family are regarded as equals is
Egalitarian family
After many discussions, Susan and Tom reach a mutual decision about where to buy a home. This is an example of a(n) _______authority pattern.
In their family, Nick makes decisions about major home maintenance projects, and Nora makes decisions about major family vacations. This is an example of a(n)________authority pattern.
Friedrich Engels, an associate of Karl Marx, noted that the family is the ultimate source of
Social inequality because of its role in the transfer of power, property, and privilege.
The _________sociological perspective suggests the ways in which the family gratifies the needs of its members and contributes to the stability of society.
William F. Ogburn noted that the family provides _______,______, and ______functions for its members.
socialization, reproductive, and protective
The ________sociological perspective would note that social change has influenced the family, in that many traditional family activities (i.e., religion, education, and recreation) have been assumed by other social institutions.
The _________sociological perspective would emphasize questions about family decision-making must be examined in light of traditional gender stratification, under which men have held a dominant position over women?
Feminists note that United States law traditionally viewed wives and children as the property of the husband. This reflects the concerns of the_________sociological perspective.
The ______sociological perspective would argue that the U.S. family contributes to social injustice and denies women opportunities that are commonly extended to men
The ________sociological perspective is most likely to study the personal relationships between stepparents and their stepchildren and study the family dynamics of such relationships.
The _______ sociological perspective contends that social scientists need to rethink the notion that families without an adult male present is an automatic cause for concern.
Religion, according to Émile Durkheim, is defined as:
a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things.
By sponsoring many clubs and organizations, churches serve as a training ground for community leaders and allow members to refine their organizational skills. In doing so, churches fulfill a
social support
Durkheim was primarily interested in understanding religious behavior within
a social context
The______sociological perspective suggests that religion serves as an integrative power that binds people together, much like the social forces of nationalism or patriotism.
Based on the pioneering work of Émile Durkheim, sociologists have frequently examined religion with a focus on its role in providing social support and reinforcing societal norms. This approach reflects the concerns of the _______sociological perspective.
President George W. Bush created the Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives for the purpose of:
To assist faith-based service organizations to channel more federal aid to them. It was challenged as an infringement of the seperation of church and state.
Sociologist _______published a book in 1904 that noted that it was not a mere coincidence that an overwhelming number of business leaders, owners of capital, and skilled workers were Protestants and not Catholics.
max weber
Max Weber's term for the disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concern, and rational orientation to life emphasized by John Calvin and his followers is:
Protestant ethnic
One by-product of the Protestant ethic was a drive to______savings that can be used for future investment.
Max Weber argued that the Protestant ethic was linked to the development of
classical sociologist_______noted that religions often drug the masses into submission by offering a consolation for their harsh lives on earth and the hope of salvation in an ideal afterlife.
Karl Marx
The______sociological perspective suggests that during the period of slavery in the southern United States, Christianity may have pacified certain slaves and lessened the rage that often fuels rebellion
The______sociological perspective argues that to whatever extent religion actually does influence social behavior, it reinforces existing patterns of dominance and inequality.
Statements to which members of a particular religion adhere are known as:
Religious rituals in a church or temple serve as important face-to-face encounters in which people reinforce their beliefs and commitment to their faith. This focus represents the concerns of the_______sociological perspective.
Practices required or expected of members of a faith are known as:
religious rituals
Attendance at a church service and the silent or spoken reading of prayers are examples of religious_______.
The feeling or perception of being in direct contact with the ultimate reality, such as a divine being, or of being overcome with religious emotion is called a religious______.
Religious experiences are
the feeling or perception of being in direct contact with the ultimate reality, such as a divine being, or of being overcome with religious emotion
A person is hiking in the Canyonlands of Utah, and she realizes that the beautiful panorama that is unfolding in front of her could not have happened by accident; there must have been some wonderful plan and power that created this and many other wonderful natural areas. This is a religious
Polygamy, polygyny, and polyandry are all forms of serial monogamy
Polyandry, a system in which women may have several husbands, is an example, albeit a rare example, of a social order in which women are more powerful than men.
Polyandry tends to be extremely common in most human cultures around the world.
There are still at least 19 countries in Africa where at least 20 percent of women are in polygamous marriages.
Spouses in a patriarchal society are considered as equals.
Religion is a cultural universal.
Karl Marx viewed religion as an integrative force in human society.
Max Weber believed that religion often appeases the masses into submission by offering a consolation for their harsh lives on earth.
A by-product of the Protestant ethic was the drive to accumulate savings that could be used for future investment
Karl Marx described religion as an "opiate" that was particularly harmful to oppressed peoples.
Education refers to the process of
learning where some people continuously teach while others adopt the social role of learner.
The proportion of people 25 years of age and over with a high school diploma increased from 41 percent in 1960 to more than____percent in 2003.
The proportion of people 25 years of age or over with a college degree rose from 8 percent in 1960 to about____percent in 2003
Education is a major______in the United States.
And is the social institution that formally socializes members of our society.
Teaching students about the physical and political geography of their state, their country, and the world is a______function of education.
Teaching students to read and write, to calculate numbers, and to master the facts of the society's history are all examples of the______functions of education.
Putting children in school keeps them off the street and out of trouble. This is an example of a____function of education.
The_____sociological perspective emphasizes that the common identity and social integration fostered by education contribute to overall societal stability and consensus.
Bilingualism in United States schools has been defended on the grounds that it has_____value and is a means of encouraging of_____diversity.
Critics of bilingualism in United States schools argue that bilingualism undermines the social and political_____that education has traditionally promoted.
Sex education classes, affirmative action admissions programs, and Project Head Start were all promoted as agents of
Where do the majority of foreign exchange students in the United States come from?
Asia, with China and India ranking first and second.
The_____perspective views education as an instrument of elite domination.
The "hidden curriculum" refers to:
Standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in schools.
In the United States, school children are taught not to speak until the teacher calls on them and to regulate their activities according to clocks or bells. This learning experience is referred to as
the hidden curriculum
An increase in the lowest level of education required to enter a field is called:
The______sociological perspective is especially critical of the differential way in which education bestows status.
conflict theorists
Tracking is considered the:
The practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of their test scores and other criteria.
What institution of higher learning was the first to admit female students?
In 1833 Oberlin College
Sexism in education is most evident in:
In the 20th century, sexism in education showed up in textbooks with negative stereotypes of women, counselors' pressures on female students to prepare for "women's work," and unequal funding for women's and men's athletic programs.
The "teacher-expectancy effect" refers to the impact that:
a teacher's expectations about a student's performance may have on the student's actual achievements.
Debbie's mother and father are both lawyers, and she is sent to an exclusive private school for her education. Teachers are disappointed when she does only average work in her classes, and they spend more time working with and encouraging her to excel than they do with her classmates. This situation illustrates:
teacher expectancy effect
The teacher-expectancy effect reflects the views of which sociological perspective?
One research study revealed that teachers' expectations have an impact on studts' athletic achievements. This situation would be of particular interest to the______sociological perspective.
Sociologist_______analysis of bureaucracies has been applied to schools in the United States because of the growing number of students in those institutions and the greater degree of specialization required within a technologically complex society.
Max Weber
In a public high school, certain teachers are assigned to work with college preparatory students, while others work with students who plan to go directly into the business world. This is an example of the bureaucratic characteristic of
division of labor (specialized experts teach specific subjects).
The______sociological perspective observes that the bureaucratization of education increases the likelihood that students, teachers, and administrators will be dealt with fairly -- that is, on the basis of rational and equitable criteria.
The______sociological perspective argues the standardization of educational curricula generally reflects the values, interests, and lifestyles of the most powerful groups in a society.
The prestige of the teaching profession has_____in the past decade.
Teacher salaries in the United States are comparable to the average of_____ in the nation
all the wage earners
Many teachers have ____the educational world for careers in other professions
Clark, Trow, and Horowitz identified four ideal student subcultures on college campuses. The students who focus on having fun and socializing are referred to as the ____subculture.
Clark, Trow, and Horowitz identified four ideal student subcultures on college campuses. The students who are hostile to the college environment and who seek out ideas that may or may not relate to studies are called_____.
"Who gets what, when, how", is Harold D. Lasswell's definition of
Politics was defined by Harold Lasswell as:
"who gets what, when, and how"
Harold Lasswell defined____as "who gets what, when, and how"
What term was used by Max Weber to refer to the ability to exercise one's will over others?
A college instructor probably decides what the class will do each time that they meet. The fact that the instructor can make these decisions and that the students follow his/her lead is an example of
____relations can involve large organizations, small groups, or people in an intimate association
Force is
the actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one's will on others.
When leaders imprison or even execute political dissidents, they are applying:
The exercise of power through a process of persuasion is known as
A man changes his position on the issue of immigrant refugees being granted asylum in the United States after a dinner-table argument with his grown children. This would be an example of
_____refers to institutionalized power that is recognized by the people over whom it is exercised.
Political dissidents who seize an embassy and assassinate a political leader is an example of
A newspaper editorial that convinces members of the population to vote for a particular candidate for mayor is an example of
A person who leads a group because of his or her charming and magnetic personality is an example of
Sociologist_____created a classification system of authority that distinguished between traditional, legal-rational, and charismatic authority?
max weber
Traditional authority refers to:
Legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice
The orders of one's superiors are felt to be legitimate because "this is how things have always been done" in a political system based on_____authority
Legal-rational authority refers to leaders who derive their authority from:
written rules and regulations of a political system, power made legitimate by law.
Every four years in the United States there is a presidential election, and after the election, nearly half the population readily accepts the leadership of the person for whom they did not vote. This is an example of
legal rational authority
During an inner-city riot, the governor of a state calls up members of the National Guard to protect stores and private citizens. She is able to take this action based on the state's constitution and powers granted her by the state's legislative bodies. Her power is based on_____authority.
Charismatic authority refers to leaders who derive their authority from:
the beliefs of followers than from the actual qualities of leaders.
______authority is derived more from the beliefs of followers than from the actual qualities of leaders
In pointing out that the growth of the electronic media has facilitated the development of charismatic authority, sociologist Carl Couch draws on the_____perspective.
Sociologist Carl Couch say the electronic media has facilitated the development of______authority.
Karl Marx believed that society is ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests, such as those represented by:
Power Elite model
Karl Marx believed that:
a. 19th-century representative democracy was essentially a sham.
b. industrial societies were dominated by relatively small numbers of peoples who owned factories and controlled natural resources.
c. government officials and military leaders were servants of this capitalistic class and followed their wishes (helped shape the political and economic agends). Therefore any key decisions made by politicians inevitably reflected the interests of the dominant bourgeoisie.
d. the five basic characteristics of bureaucracy are division of labor, hierarchy of authority, written rules and regulations in performance of duties, impersonality to individuals, and employment
Sociologist______believed that government officials and military leaders were essentially servants of the capitalist class and followed their wishes.
Karl Marx
_____model of power relations suggests that society is ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests
As described by C. Wright Mills, the "power elite" is:
a small group of military, industrial, and governmental leaders who control the fate of the US
Sociologist____argued that the United States is dominated by corporate, military, and political elite.
C. Wright Mills
The U.S. Secretary of State is an example of_____according to C. Wright Mills.
power elite
List three criticisms of Mills's power elite model:
a. Mill's power elite is not a conspiracy, but rather a community of interest and sediment among a small number of influential people.
b. Mill's failed to clarify when the elite opposes protests and when it tolerates them.
c. He failed to provide detailed case studies to substantiate the interrelationship among members of the power elite.
G. William Domhoff's view of the power structure of the United States most closely resembles the analysis of the_____sociological perspective.
According to G. William Domhoff the two different coalitions in the electoral arena that have exercised influence are the:
a. a corporate-conservative coalition
b.liberal-labor coalition
The______sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize the unequal distribution of power in the political system of the United States, in maintaining social, economic, and political control.
The pluralist model of power relations in the United States suggests that:
many competing groups within the community have access to government officials, so no one group is dominant
A city wants to build a drug rehabilitation center; business, religious, educational, and political groups argue back and forth about where to place this center. These competing groups illustrate the_____theory.
Dianne Pinderhughes has criticized the____model for failing to account for the exclusion of African Americans from the political process.
_____refers to the social institution through which goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed?
economic system
Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are largely
in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits.
Laissez-faire is a form of:
capitalism under which people compete freely, with minimal government intervention in the economy.
A monopoly is:
Control of a market by a single business firm
Socialism is:
An economic system under which the means of production and distribution are collectively owned.
Socialist societies differ from capitalist nations in their commitment to:
social service programs.
The United States has considered a national healthcare system that would guarantee all citizens medical coverage as a basic human right. The government's involvement in providing healthcare for all citizens is characteristic of which type of economic system?
Communism is an economic system in which:
all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people's ability to produce.
The economy of the United States is changing, which is due partly to being intertwined with and dependent on______economy.
the global
Today, the workforce of the United States is more reflective of the diversity of the population as ethnic minorities enter the labor force and immigrants and their children move from marginal jobs or employment in the informal economy to positions of greater visibility and responsibility. The_______sociological perspective notes that workers will find themselves supervising and being supervised by people very different from themselves?
The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity such as factories and plants is known as
When a United States corporation relocates its plants to a country where prevailing wages are lower than in the United States, this is the final stage of
The term downsizing was first introduced in
1987 to refer to reductions taken in a company's workforce as part of deindustrialization.
Downsizing refers to reductions in:
a company's workforce as part of deindustrialization.
According to the_____sociological perspective the media only began expressing concern about downsizing only when it began to impact managers and white-collar workers?
Conflict theorists argue that the educational system socializes students into values dictated by the powerful that tends to stifle individualism and creativity.
The overall prestige of the teaching profession has increased over the last decade.
The vocational subculture of college refers to college being viewed primarily as a means of obtaining degrees that are essential for advancement.
The authority of the president and the Congress of the United States are based on legal-rational authority, according to the classification system developed by Émile Durkheim. Max Weber classified it
Karl Marx believed that nineteenth-century representative democracy was essentially a sham.
A fundamental element purported in C. Wright Mills's thesis is that the power elite not only includes relatively few members but also operates as a self-conscious, cohesive unit.
C. Wright Mills provided many detailed case studies to substantiate his view of the power structure of the United States.
Dianne Pinderhughes is critical of the pluralist model of politics for failing to account for the exclusion of African Americans in the political process.
The People's Republic of China, Vietnam, and Cuba are the remaining societies that serve as ideal types of communist systems.
Capitalism and socialism serve as ideal types of economic systems.