Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (50)
What is the difference between biogenesis and abiogenesis?
Abiogenesis supports spontaneous generation while biogenesis says that all life must come from life.
Describe Redi's experiment. What did it prove?
Redi put meat into different jars. Some covered some uncovered. At the end of the experiment the covered had nothing growing in them while the uncovered did. Redi's critics claimed that this was because there were no air in the jar. He then covered it with mesh and of course nothing grew. This disproved abiogenesis.
Describe Pasteur's experiment. What did it prove?
He used a swan neck flask to keep miccroorganisms from touching boiled broth without keeping it from air. At any time he could tip the flask putting the broth in contact with dust allowing microorganisms to grow. This proved biogenesis.
What were the contributions of Oparin, Miller and Urey, and Fox, to our understanding the origin of life.
Oparin developed the idea of the primordial soup. Miller and Urey proved the idea of primordial soup. Fox found that by heating solutions of amino acids he could form protocells.
Describe Miller and Urey's experiment.
They created a mixture of gases and steam, sent electrical shocks through it(lightning) then fluctuated the temperature to simulate day-night temperature change. After a week they noticed the prescence of amino acids, sugars, and organic compounds.
What is a protocell?
A primitive membrane enclosed structure that can carry out growth, division, and metabolism.
What is the primordial soup?
Energy from sunlight and lightning triggered chemical reactions to produce simple compounds(amino acids, sugars, and organic compounds). These reactions happened in the atmosphere and then the products rained down on the oceans (the "soup")
What were the first cells like?
Heterotrophic anaerobic prokaryotes. Formed in precambrian.
What is the endosymbiont hypothesis?
One prokaryotic cell engulfs another the cell inside develops into mitochondria/organelles.
How are fossils preserve?(know each of the major types)
Petrification - Organic material replaced by minerals
Mold & Cast - Form of organism after it rots away
Carbonization - All elements except carbon removed
Unaltered Preservation - Original state (amber)
What is relative dating?
The science of determining the sequence of past events without finding the actual age
What is the law of superposition?
Each layer of rock is older than the layer above it.
What is absolute dating?
The process of determining an approximate numerical age
How are radioactive elements used to date fossils?
This method is based upon radioactive decay.This rate of decays occurs at a specific and constant rate. The age of a rock can be determined by measuring the amount of the daughter product and adding that to the amount of the remaining parent material.
How does the fossil record support both the idea of stability and change in living things?
When fossils are arranged according to their age, you can see some organisms have remained the same while others have changed dramatically.
How old are the oldest fossils that have been recorded?
3.4 billion years old
What is morphology?
The branch of biology that deals with the form of living organisms, and with relationships between their structures.
What are homologous structures? (Give an example)
A similar body structure that indicates a common ancestor. Ex. Birds and Bats
What are analogous structures? (Give an example)
A body part that serves the same purpose but does not have the same structure. Ex. Birds and Butterflies
What are vestigial structures? (Give an example)
Traces of structures no longer used by an organism. Ex. wings on flightless birds
What is adaptive radiation?
A single ancestor diverges into multiple forms to suit different enviormental pressures.
What is the difference between convergent and divergent evolution?
Convergent evolution is when unrelated organisms aquire the same biologic trait while divergent is the accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species
What events had the most impact of the distribution of species?
Geography and behavior
What is the difference between geographic and reproductive isolation?
Geographic isolation is when there is a physical barrier keeping two species from interacting while reproductive is when members of two populations cannot interbreed
What are the eras of geologic time in order?
Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
What are the characteristic organisms of the Cenozoic era?
Mammals and later on humans develop.
What are the characteristic organisms of the Mesozoic era?
Dinosaurs and Reptiles.
What are the characteristic organisms of the Paleozoic era?
A wide diversity of aquatic life.
Are there any characteristic organisms for the Precambrian era?
Yes. Towards the end there were simple ocean dwelling prokaryotes.
Why were the galapagos islands interesting to Darwin?
Because there were many different species that were similar to each other fairly close together however geographicay isolated.
What was the name of Darwin's ship?
What was the name of Darwin's first book?
The origin of species
Who was Jean Baptiste Lamark?
Developed the theory of acquired characteristics-changes that occur in an organism over the course of its life (not genetic) will be passed on.
What is the difference between the theory of natural selection and acquired characteristics?
Acquired characteristics-changes that occur in an organism over the course of its life (not genetic) will be passed on. Natural selection states will favor individuals with some variations over others and thereby change the frequency of traits within the population.
What is an adaptation?
A trait with a current functional role in the life of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection to fit its enviorment.
How is the peppered moth an example of natural selection?
There was a higher allele frequency for light colored moths- they were able to blend in with trees. The Industrial revolution produces pollution and trees become dark. Allele frequency shifts to dark colored moths.
What is directional selection? Be able to interpret graph.
A single phenotype is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction. (Graph with the arc shifting left)
What is stabilizing selection? Be able to interpet a graph.
Genetic diversity decreases as the population stabilizes on a particular trait. It usually gets rid of the extreme values of the character. Favors the middle. (Middle of the arc rises while sides decrease)
What is disruptional selection? Be able to interpret graph.
Favors the extremes of a range of selection. (Sides of arc go up and middle goes down)
What do the following show about the possibility of evolution? (biochemistry, physiology, embryology)
Biochemistry- All organisms from bacteria to humans share many of the same biochemical details.
Physiology-Homologous structures can point to a common ancestor that evolved into seperate species.
Embryology-All embryos develop similarly
no matter what species
How are Hominids different from other primates?
Hominids are humans and there ancient ancestors. The primary distinction is that Hominids can remain Bipedal for long periods of time while other primates may be only able to stand for short periods of time or not at all.
What is then name of the common ancestor we believe is the link between apes and modern man?
What are the characteristics of the following hominids? (Homo habilis, Homo Erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapiens)
Homo Habilis- "Handy man" used stone tools
Homo erectus- first hominid out of the tropics
Homo neanderthalensis- extinct autospecies, larger bone structure
Homo sapiens- modern man
What is taxonomy?
Tthe classification of organisms using universally accepted names.
Who developed the current system of classification for taxonomy?
What are the current levels of classification from largest to smallest?
How do you use binomial nomenclature to correctly identify an organism? What are the rules that need to be followed for binomial nomenclature?
Each name only identifies one organism. Name is two parts and written in Italics or underlined.First part Genus second part species. Genus captilized species not. Written in latin or greek
What are the three domains used in taxonomy? What kingdoms are contained in each of the three domains?
Archae- Kingdom Archaebacteria
Bacteria- Kingdom Eubacteria
Eukaryota- Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Animalia, Kingdom Plantae
What is a Phylogeny? Be able to interpret one.
The evolutionary history of a species, not just physical similarities.
What is a cladogram? Be able to interpret one.
Similar to pedigrees. Branches that are closer to one another share a more recent ancestor than those farther away.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 15 - Evolution: Evidence & Theory
biology unit 8
Evolution Test 2/24
Fossils and Evolution Study Guide; Pre AP Biology…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Advanced Translation Final Exam
Advanced Translation Midterm
Bio Ch. 18-19
Bio Ch. 20-21