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63 terms

Chapter 12 - Enterprise Computing

Vocabulary from Discovering Computers Fundamentals 2011 Edition
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artificial intelligence (AI)
The application of human intelligence to computers
blade server
Complete computer server, such as a Web server or network server, packed on a single card
business intelligence (BI)
Several types of applications and technologies for acquiring, storing, analyzing, and providing access to information to help users make more sound business decisions
business process automation (BPA)
Automation that provides easy exchange of information among business applications, reduces the need for human intervention in processes, and utilizes software to automate processes wherever possible
chief information officer (CIO)
Employee who directs the company's information service and communications functions
cloud computing
Internet service that provides computing needs to computer users
computer-aided design (CAD)
Software that aids in engineering, drafting, and design
computer-aided engineering (CAE)
Use of computers to test product designs
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
Use of computers to assist with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and assembly
computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
Use of computers to integrate the many different operations of the manufacturing process
content management system (CMS)
An information system that is a combination of databases, software, and procedures that organizes and allows access to various forms of documents and other files, including images and multimedia content
customer interaction management (CIM)
Software that manages the day-to-day interactions with customers, such as telephone calls, e-mail interactions, Web interactions, and instant messaging sessions
customer relationship management (CRM)
System that manages information about customers, interactions with customers, past purchases, and interest
data center
Centralized location for managing and housing hardware and software
data warehouse
Huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions
decision support system (DSS)
Information system that helps users analyze data and make decisions
disaster recovery plan
Written plan describing the steps a company would take to restore computer operations in the event of a disaster. Contains four major components: emergency plan, backup plan, recovery plan, and test plan
distribution systems
Provides forecasting for inventory control, manages and tracks shipping of products, and provides information and analysis on inventory in warehouses
document management system (DMS)
System for storage and management of a company's documents, such as word processing documents, presentations, and spreadsheets
EDI (electronic data interchange)
Standard that defines how data transmits across telephone lines or other means
enterprise
Term that commonly describes a business or venture of any size
enterprise computing
Term large companies use to refer to the use of a huge network of computers that meets their diverse computing needs
enterprise hardware
Devices geared for heavy use, maximum availability, and maximum efficiency that large organizations use to manage and store information and data
enterprise information
Information gathered in the ongoing operations of an enterprise- sized organization
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
Provides centralized, integrated software to help manage and coordinate the ongoing activities of the enterprise
enterprise storage system
Strategy that focuses on the availability, protection, organization, and backup of storage in a company
e-retail
Occurs when businesses use the Web to sell products
executive management
The highest management positions in a company, which focuses on the long-range direction of the company
expert system
Information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision making
extranet
Portion of a company's network that allows customers or suppliers of a company to access parts of an enterprise's intranet
failover
Process of one system automatically taking the place of a failed system
Fibre Channel
Technology used to connect to storage systems at data rates up to 4 Gbps
grid computing
Technology that combines many servers and/or personal computers on a network to act as one large computer
high-availability system
System that continues running and performing tasks for at least 99 percent of the time
human resources information system (HRIS)
Information system that manages one or more human resources function(s)
information system
Hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that a computer requires to generate information
interoperability
Sharing information with other information systems within an enterprise
legacy system
Information system that has existed within an organization for an extended length of time and is relied upon heavily
management information system (MIS)
Information system that generates accurate, timely, and organized information, so that managers and other users can make decisions, solve problems, supervise activities, and track progress
managers
Employees responsible for coordinating and controlling an organization's resources
marketing information systems
Information system that serves as a central repository for the tasks of the marketing functional unit
Manufacturing Resource Planning II (MRP II)
Extension of MRP that includes software that helps in scheduling, tracking production in real time, and monitoring product quality
Material Requirements Planning (MRP)
Approach to information management in a manufacturing environment that uses software to help monitor and control processes related to production
middle management
Level of management responsible for implementing the strategicdecision of executive management
network attached storage (NAS)
Server connected to a network with the sole purpose of providing storage
nonmanagement employees
Production, clerical, and other personnel
office information system (OIS)
Information system that enables employees to perform tasks using computers and other electronic devices, instead of manually
online banking
Online connection to a bank's computer to access account balances, pay bills, and copy monthly transactions to a user's computer
operational management
Level of management that supervises the production, clerical, and other nonmanagement employees of a company
optical disc server
Server that holds hundreds of optical discs that can contain programs and data
portal
Web site that offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location
RAID (redundant array of independent disks)
Group of two or more integrated hard disks that acts like a single large hard disk
redundant components
Components used so that a functioning computer can take over automatically the tasks of a similar component that fails
sales force automation (SFA)
Software that equips traveling salespeople with the electronic tools they need to be more productive
scalability
Measure of how well computer hardware, software, or an information system can grow to meeting increasing performance demands
small- and medium-sized business (SMB)
Business that is smaller in size than an enterprise and typically does not have an international presence
storage area network (SAN)
High-speed network with the sole purpose of providing storage to other servers to which it is attached
thin client
Small terminal-like computer that mostly relies on a server for data storage and processing
transaction processing system (TPS)
Information system that captures and processes data from day-to-day business activities
virtual private network (VPN)
Network that provides a mobile user with a secure connection to a company network server, as if the user has a private line
Web services
Set of software technologies that allows businesses to create products and B2B (business-to-business) interactions over the Internet
workflow
Defined process that identifies the specific set of steps involved in completing a particular project or business process
workflow application
Program that assists in the management and tracking of all the activities in a business process from start to finish