Chapters 13 & 14

The Endocrine System The Reproductive System
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acromegaly
is a rare chronic disease characterized by abnormal enlargement of extremities caused by the excessive secretion of growth hormone AFTER puberty
Addison's disease
occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone, characterized by chronic, worsening fatigue and muscle weakness, loss of appetite, low blood pressure, and weight loss
adrenal medulla
middle portion of each adrenal gland
adrenalitis
inflammation of the adrenal glands
adrenomegaly
enlargement of one or both adrenal glands
adrenopathy
Any disease of the adrenal glands
aldosteronism
an abnormality of the electrolyte balance that is caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone
aldosterone (ALD)
a corticosteroid that regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys
androgens
are sex hormones secreted by the gonads, the adrenal cortex, and fat cells
antidiuretic
pertaining to a medication that decreases urine secretion
antidiurectic hormone
which is secreted by the hypothalamus and stored and released in the pituitary gland, helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted through the kidneys. In contrast, a diuretic is administered to increase the amount of urine secreation
antithyroid drug
a medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
calcitonin
which is produced by the thyroid gland, is a hormone that works with the parathyroid hormone to decrease calcium levels in the blood and tissues by moving calcium into storage in the bones and teeth
chemical thyroidectomy
oral administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells. Disables at least part of the thyroid gland, used to treat chronic hyperthyroid disorders such as Graves' disease and cancer AKA-RADIOACTIVE IODINE TREATMENT (RAI)
cortisol
a corticosteroid that has an antiinflammatory action, also regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body AKA-HYDROCORTISONE
diabetes inspidus (DI)
caused by an insufficient production of the antidiurectic hormone ADH or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone (insufficient quantities of ADH [which is secreted by the hypothalamus and stored and released in the pituitary gland] results in too much fluid being secreted by the kidneys..which caused polydipsia and polyuria; if not controlled can cause severe dehydration)
diabetes mellitus
a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both
diabetic retinopathy
occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina, causes blood to leak into the posterior segment of the eyeball and produce the damage of the loss of vision
endocrinologist
physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and mafunctions of the endocrine glands
endocrinology
study of hormones, hormone-secreting glands, and their diseases
epinephrine
stimulates the sympathetic nervous system in response to physical injury or to mental stress such as fear, it makes the heart beat faster and can raise blood pressure, also helps the liver release glucose (sugar) and limits the release of insulin AKA-ADRENALINE
estrogen
a hormone secreted by the ovaries that is important in the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics and in regulation of the menstrual cycle
exophthalmos
an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit
gamete
is a reproductive cell, these are sperm in the male and ova (eggs) in the female
gestational diabetes
a form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies, condition usually disappears after delivery
gigantism
abnormal growth of entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone BEFORE puberty
glycogen
a polysaccharide, commonly called animal starch, which is the storage form for glucose in the liver and muscles
glucose
which is the basic form of energy used by the body AKA-BLOOD SUGAR
goiter
an abnormal nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland, produces a swelling in the front and of the neck
Graves' disease
a disorder of unknown cause in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland and stimulates it to make excessive amounts of thyroid hormone
growth hormone
regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues AKA SOMATOTROPIC HORMONE
glucagon (GCG)
hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in response to low levels of glucose in the bloodstream increases the glucose level by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen into glucose for release into the bloodstream
gynecomastia
condition of excessive mammary development in the male, caused by a decrease in testosterone
hormones
are chemical messangers that are secreted by endocrine glands directly into the bloodstream, this enables them to reach cells and organs throughout the body
hypercalcemia
characterized by abnormally HIGH concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones (can lead to weakened bones and the formation of kidney stones)
hypercrinism
a condition due to excessive secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland
hyperglycemia
abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood, often seen in patients with diabetes mellitus...symptoms include polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia AKA-DIABETIC COMA
hyperinsulinism
condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream
hyperpituitarism
the excess secretion of growth hormone that causes acromegaly and gigantism
hyperthyroidism
the overproduction of thyroid hormones which causes an imbalance of the metabolism, symptoms include increased metabolic rate, sweating, nervousness, and weight loss....most common cause is Graves' disease AKA-THYROTOXICOSIS
hypoglycemia
abnormal low concentration of glucose in the blood...symptoms include nervousness and shakiness, confussion, perspiration, or feeling anxious or weak AKA-INSULIN SHOCK
hypophysectomy
removal of abnormal glandular tissue, preformed through the nasal passages
hypothyroidism
caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion...symptoms include fatigue, depression, sensitivity to cold, and a decreased metabolic rate AKA-UNDERACTIVE THYROID
insulinoma
a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin
laparoscopic adrenalectomy
a minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove one or both adrenal glands
leptin
a protein hormone secreted by fat cells that is involved in the regulation of appetite (leptin leaves the fat cells and travels in the bloodstream to the brain, where is acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and burn fat stored in adipose tissue)
lobectomy
surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland, this term is also used to describe the removal of a lobe of the liver, brain, or lung
luteinizing hormone (LH)
stimulates ovulation in the female. In the male, the luteinizing hormone stimulates the secretion of testosterone
myxedema
caused by an extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion, symptoms include swelling, particulary around the eyes and cheeks, fatigue, and a subnormal temperature
norepinephrine
both a hormone and a neurohormone, it is released as a hormone by the adrenal medulla and as a neurohormone by the sympathetic nervous system, plays an important role in the "fight-or-flight response" by raising blood pressure, strengthing the heartbeat, and stimulating muscle contractions
pancreatalgia
pain in the pancreas
pancreatectomy
surgical removal or all or part of the pancreas, performed to treat pancreatic cancer, this procedure also involves removing the spleen, gallbladder, common bile duct, and portions of the small intestine and stomach
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas, a leading cause is long-time alcohol abuse
parathyroidectomy
surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands, performed to control hyperparathyroidism
pheochromocytoma
a rare, benign tumor of the adrenal gland that causes too much release of epinephrine norepinephrine, which regulate heart rate and blood pressure
pinealoma
tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin, can also cause insomnia by disrupting the circadian cycle
pinealopathy
any disease or condition of the pineal gland
pituitarism
Any disorder of the pituitary gland and its function
pituitary adenoma
slow-growing benign tumors of pituitary gland, there are 2 types
--functioning--often produce hormones in large and irregular amounts
--nonfunctioning-- do not produce any significant amounts of these hormones
polydipsia
excessive thirst
polyphagia
excessive hunger
polyuria
excessive urination
prediabetes
Condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes; considered a major risk factor for future diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
progesterone
hormone released during the second half of the menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary, its function is to complete the preparation of the uterus for possible pregnancy
prolactinoma
benign tumor of the pituitary gland...causes pituitary gland to produce too much of the lactogenic hormone known as prolactin, can cause infertility in women and erectile dysfunction in men, and can impair vision
tetany
caused by a deficiency of parathyroid hormone; the low calcium levels in the blood lead to excitation of nerves and muscle spasms
thymectomy
surgical removal of the thymus gland
thymitis
inflammation of the thymus gland
thymopathy
any disease or condition of the thymus
thymosin
plays an important role in the immune system by stimulating the maturation of lymphocytes into T-cells
thymus
located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity, its posterior to the sternum and slightly superior to the heart
thyroiditis
inflammation of the thyroid gland
thyroidotomy
surgical incision into the thyroid gland
thyroid storm
relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism, patients may complain of fever, chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath, tremors, increased sweating, disorientation, and fatigue AKA-THYROTOXIC CRISIS
thyroxine (t4)
one of the two primary thyroid hormones that regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other body systems....controlled by thyroid-stimulating hormone
adrenocorticotropic hormone
stimulates growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex
Conn's syndrome
a disorder of the adrenal glands that is caused by the excessive production of aldosterone, can cause weakness, cramps, and convulsions
cretinism
a congenital form of hypothyroidism, if treatment is not started soon after birth, will cause arrested physical and mental development
Cushing's syndrome
caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol, cortisol has an anti-inflammatory action, and it regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body...symptoms include red "moon" face
electrolytes
are mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium, that are normally found in the blood
follicle-stimulating hormone
stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova (eggs) in the ovaries of the female. In the male, it stimulates the production of sperm in the testicles
fructosamine test
measures average glucose levels over the previous 3 weeks, able to detect changes more rapidly than the HbA1c
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland, often leads to hypothyroidism
insulin
hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets in response to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream....functions in 2 way
1)when energy is needed, insulin allows glucose to enter the cells to be used as this energy
2)when additional glucose is not needed, insulin stimulates the liver to convert glucose into glycogen for storage
interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)
stimulates ovulation in the female, in the male it stimulates the secretion of testosterone
melonocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
increases the production of melanin in melanocytes, thereby causing darkening of skin pigmentation (production usually increases during pregnancy)
oxytocin (OXT)
stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth, after childbirth, oxytocin controls postnatal hemorrhage and stimulates the flow of milk from the mammary glands (Pitocin is a synthetic form of oxytocin that is administered to induce or speed up labor
pacreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
pituitary gland
a very small endocrine gland, AKA PINEAL BODY, is located in the central portion of the brain
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones. both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
amenorrhea
an abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 90 days or more, can be caused by stress, hormonal problems, poor nutrition, or excessive exercise
amniocentesis
surgical puncture with a needle to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid, usually obtained after the 14th week of pregnancy, used to evaluate fetal health and to diagnose certain congenital disorders
andropause
ADAM--is marked by the decrease of the male hormone testosterone, ususally begins in late 40's and progresses very gradually over several decades
azoospermia
the absence of sperm in the semen
cervical dysplasia
presence of precancerous changes in the cells that make up the inner lining of the cervix, can become malignant without early detection and treatment
cervicitis
inflammation of the cervix, usually caused by an infection
chlamydia
caused by the bacterium chlamydia trachomatis, is the most commonly reported STD, its highly contagious and requires early treatment with antibiotics
chorionic villus sampling
the examination of cells retrieved from the chorionic villi, which are minute, vascular projections on the chorion, test performed between the 8th and 10th weeks of pregnancy
colostrum
specialized form of milk that delivers essential nutrients and antibodies in a form that the newborn can digest
colpopexy
surgical fixation of a prolapsed vagina to a surrounding structure such as the abdominal wall
colporrhaphy
the surgical suturing of a tear in the vagina
colposcopy
the direct visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina
conization
the surgical removal of a cone-shaped specimen of tissue from the cervix, this is performed as a diagnostic procedure or to remove abnormal tissue AKA-CONE BIOPSY
cryptorchidism
a developmental defect in which one or both testicles fail to descend into their normal position in the scrotum AKA-UNDESCENDED TESTICLE
dysmenorrhea
pain caused by uterine cramps during a menstrual period, pain caused in lower abdomen can be sharp, intermittent, dull, or aching
eclampsia
more serious form of preeclampsia, characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma...treatment includes delivery of fetus
ectopic pregnancy
a potentially dangerous condition in which a fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside of the uterus
endocervicitis
inflammation of the mucous membranes lining of the cervix
endometrial
pertaining to the lining of the uterus
endometriosis
condition in which patches of endometrial tissue escape the uterus and become attached to other structures in the pelvic cavity
epididymitis
inflammation of the epididymis that is frequently caused by the spread of infection from the urethra or the bladder
episiotomy
a surgical incision made into the perineum to enlarge the vaginal orifice to prevent tearing of the tissues as the infant moves out of the birth canal
fibroadenoma
a round, firm, rubbery mass that arises from excess growth of glandular and connective tissue in the breast, can grow to size of plums, are benign and usually painless
fimbriae
the fringed, finger-like extensions of the infundibulum, role is to catch the mature ovum when it leaves the ovary
galactorrhea
the production of breast milk in a women who is not breastfeeding, caused by malfunction of the thyroid or pituitary gland
genital herpes
caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2, symptoms include itching or burning before the appearance of lesions on the genitals or rectum, its highly contagious, even when visible lesions are not present....there is no cure
Gynecologist
GYN physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system
hematospermia
the presence of blood in the seminal fluid, can be caused by infections of the seminal vesicles, prostatitis, urethritis, or urethral strictures
hemospermia
the presence of blood in the semen.
hydrocele
a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles
hypomenorrhea
an unusually small amount of menstrual flow during shortened regular menstrual period
hysterectomy
the surgical removal of the uterus (procedure is further described depending upon the structures that are removed)
hysterosalpingography
a radiographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes, test requires the instillation of radio-opaque contrast material into the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes to make them visual
hysteroscopy
the direct visual examination of the interior of the uterus and fallopian tubes
implantation
the embedding of the zygote into the lining of the uterus
infundibulum
the funnel-shaped opening into the fallopian tube near the ovary
lactation
the process of forming and secreting milk from the breasts as nourishment for the infant
leukorrhea
a profuse, whitish mucus discharge from the uterus and vagina
mastalgia
pain in the breast AKA-MASTODYNIA
mastopexy
a mammoplasty to affix sagging breasts in a more elevated position AKA-BREAST LIFT
menarche
the beginning of the menstrual function, begins after the maturation that occurs during puberty
menometrorrhagia
excessive uterine bleeding at both the usual time of menstrual periods and at other irregular intervals AKA-INTERMENSTRUAL BLEEDING
metrorrhea
an abnormal discharge, such as mucus or pus, from the uterus
multiparous
a women who has given birth two or more times
neonate
newborn infant during the first 4 weeks after birth
nulligravida
a women who has never been pregnant
nullipara
a women who has never borne a viable child
Obstetrician
OB a physician who specializes in providing medical care to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately thereafter
oligomenorrhea
term used to describe infrequent or very light menstruation in a women with previously normal periods
oophorectomy
surgical removal of one or both ovaries
orchidectomy
surgical removal of one or both testicles
orchiopexy
the repair of an undescended testicle, this is a endoscopic surgery performed on infants before the age of 1 year to move the testicle into its normal position in the scrotum
ovariectomy
surgical removal of the ovary
ovariorrhexis
the rupture of an ovary
penitis
inflammation of the penis
perimenopause
term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all
perimetrium
the tough, membranous outer layer of the uterus AKA-UTERINE SEROSA
Peyronie's disease
a form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection AKA-PENILE CURVATURE
placenta previa
the abnormal placement of the placenta in the lower portion of the uterus, symptoms include painless, sudden-onset bleeding during the third trimester
polycystic ovary
condition caused by a hormonal imbalance in which the ovaries are enlarged by the presence of many cysts formed by incompletely developed follicles
postpartum
after childbirth
preeclampsia
a complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension, edema, and proteinuria
priapism
painful erection that lasts 4 hours or more but is either not accompanied by sexual excitement or does not go away after sexual stimulation has ended
primigravida
a women during her first pregnancy
primipara
a women who has borne one viable child
prostate gland
exocrine gland, in men, at the base of the urinary bladder that secretes the fluid part of semen into the urethra during ejaculation
pruritus vulvae
condition of severe itching of the external female genitalia
pyosalpinx
an accumulation of pus in a fallopian tube
salpingitis
an inflammation of a fallopian tube
salpingo-oophorectomy
(SO) surgical removal of a fallopian tube and ovary (a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the removal of both of the fallopian tubes and ovaries)
trichomoniasis
infection caused by the parasite trichomonas vaginalis one of the most common symptoms in infected women is a thin, frothy, yellow-green, foul-smelling vaginal discharge
uterine prolapse
condition in which the uterus slides from its normal position in the pelvic cavity and sags into the vagina AKA-PELVIC FLOOR HERNIA
vaginitis
inflammation of the lining of the vagina AKA-COLPITIS
varicocele
a knot of widening varicose veins in one side of the scrotum
vasovasostomy
a procedure performed as an attempt to restore fertility to a vasectomized male AKA-VASECTOMY REVERSAL
Apgar score
a scale of 1 to 10 to evaluate a newborn infant's physical status at 1 and 5 minutes after birth
fibrocystic breast disease
the presence of a single or multiple benign cysts in the breasts
gonorrhea
a highly contagious condition caused by the bacterium neisseria gonorrhoeae, in women it affects the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes...in men it affects the urethra by causing painful urination and an abnormal discharge, can also affect the mouth, throat, and anus of both men and women
premature menopause
condition in which the ovaries cease functioning before age 40 due to disease, hormonal disorder, or surgical removal
syphilis
caused by the bacterium treponema pallidum, has many symptoms that are difficult to distinguish from other STDs, its highly contagious and is passed from person to person through direct contact with a chancre (a sore caused by syphilis)
torsion
twisting