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Terms in this set (26)

-Need
Is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy?
-Burden of Proof: the obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary
-Example
Is there a need for more student parking on campus
Is there a need for the school district to replace traditional textbooks with e-textbooks
Is there a need for national ID card in the US
-People are not inclined to adopt a new policy unless they are convinced that the old one is not working

-Plan
If there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem
-Example
What can we do to get more student parking on campus
How much will e-textbooks cost? Who will pay for them? What devices will students use to read them?
What information should be included on a national ID card? Who will be responsible for collecting the information and creating the cards?
-Should identify the major features of the plan

-Practically
Will the speaker's plan solve the problem? Will it create new and more serious problems?
-Example
Building a multi-level parking garage on campus would provide more student parking but the cost would require a sharp increase in tuition
Switching to e-textbooks would save the school district more money in the long run, but the initial investment would be costly at the time when the district's budget is already stretched thin
A national ID card might be an easy way for people to verify their identity for security purposes, but it could also infringe on civil liberties and give the government too much personal information about individuals
-Hasty generalization
A speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence
-Example
Throughout american history, military leaders have always made excellent presidents. Look at the examples of George Washington, Andrew Jackson, and Dwight Eisenhower

-False Cause
A speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second
-Example
When a team from the NFC wins the Super Bowl, economic growth during the next recent year is stronger than when a team from the AFC wins the Super Bowl. Therefore, if we want economic growth, we should root for a team from the NFC to win this year's Super Bowl

-Invalid Analogy
An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike
-Example
Employees are like nails. Just as nails must be hit on the head to get them to work, so must employees

-Bandwagon
A fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct or desirable
-Example
The governor must be correct in his approach to social policy; after all, the polls show that 60 percent of the people support him

-Red Herring
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion
-Example
How dare my opponents accuse me of political corruption at a time when we are working to improve the quality of life for all people in the US

-Ad hominem
A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute
-Example
The head of the commerce commission has a number of interesting economic proposals, but let's not forget that she comes from a very wealthy family

-Either-or
A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist
-Example
The government must either raise taxes or eliminate services for the poor

-Slippery Slope
A fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to a subsequent steps that cannot be prevented
-Example
Now that the TSA is allowed to use full body scanners and invasive pat downs before letting us through security, it's only a matter of time before they strip-search every man, woman and child who wants to fly on a plane

-Appeal to tradition
A fallacy which assumes that something old is automatically better than something new
-Example
I don't see any reason to abolish the electoral college. It has been around since the adoption of the US Constitution in 1787, and we should keep it as long as the US continues to exist

-Appeal to Novelty
A fallacy which assumes that something new is automatically better than something old
-Example
Our church should adopt the 2011 New International Version of the Bible because it is 400 years newer than the King James Version