31 terms

Chemistry Vocab

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Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Atom
The smallest part of an element that maintains the properties of the element
Nucleus
Center of an atom that contains the protons and neutrons
Neutron
Particle in atom with no electrical charge
Proton
Particle in atom with positive electrical charge
Electron
Very tiny particle with negative charge (almost no mass)
Valance Electron
Electron farthest away from the nucleus, in the highest energy level
Periodic Table
Chart showing repeating pattern of properties of elements, organized by atomic number
Periods in periodic table
Horizontal rows in periodic tale
Groups in periodic table
Vertical columns, share the same properties and number of valence electrons
Atomic number
Number of protons (increases from left to right in periodic table, and top to bottom)
Atomic mass
Average mass of 1 atom (atomic mass unit - amu)
Metals
Left side of periodic table: shiny, conduct electricity and heat well
Nonmetals
Right side of p.t., conducts heat and electricity poorly
Metalloids
Zigzag staircase pattern in p.t., shares properties of both metals and monmetals
Characterisctic properties
Property of a substance that never changes and can be used to identify the substance
Boiling, Melting/Freezing point
Point at which a substance changes state
Density
The amount of mass in a given volume D=M/V
Malleability
Property of metals to be bent and keep their shape
Ductile
Property of metals to be drawn into a wire
pH
The scale used to measure the strength of an acid or base
Conductivity
The ability to transmit electricity and heat
Physical change
New form of original substance, nothing new created
Chemical change
- Old substance destroyed, new substance with new properties is created
Element
Made of only one kind of atom, cannot be broken into anything smaller chemically or physically
Compound
Pure substance chemically combined from 2 or more elements
Mixture
Two or more substances mixed together but not chemically combined
Reactant
Starting substances in a chemical reaction
Product
Substances produced in a chemical reaction
Conservation of mass
Mass of reactants always equals the mass of the products
Closed system
Isolated system that does not interact with other systems