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PSYC 100: Chapter 13
Psychological Science, 4th ed. Gazzaniga, Heatherton, Halpern Chapter 13: Personality Final exam
Terms in this set (85)
The characteristics thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviours that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances. Comes from Latin word persona = "mask". Goldon ALlport's definition: "the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine [the individual's] characteristic behaviour and thought." It is dynamic and persistent, and a coherent whole.
Some personality psychologists want to understand this - try to understand as much as possible about a person as an individual.
A characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances.
Freudian theory. Unconscious forces determine behaviour. We are unaware of their conflict but it is driving.
Conscious level (Freud)
Psychodynamic theory. Consists of thoughts that we are aware of.
Preconscious level (Freud)
Psychodynamic theory. Content that is not currently in awareness, but that could be brought to awareness.
Unconscious level (Freud)
Psychodynamic theory. Material that the mind cannot easily retrieve, often in conflict, and produce psychological discomfort.
Psychodynamic theory. Component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious. Operates according to the pleasure principle (seek pleasure, avoid pain).
Force that drives the pleasure principle (seek pleasure, avoid pain). Refers generally to the energy that promotes pleasure seeking.
Psychodynamic theory. Internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct. Develops in childhood - acts as a brake on the id. Rigid structure of morality or conscience.
Psychodynamic theory. Component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego. Operates according to reality principle.
Reality principle (Freud)
Ego operates according to this principle. Involves rational thought, problem-solving.
Defense mechanisms (Freud)
Unconscious mental strategies that the mind uses to protect itself from distress. Eg. denial, repression, rationalization, displacement - this work can be credited to Freud's daughter mostly. Modern researchers contend that these mechanisms instead protect self-esteem.
Psychosexual stages (Freud)
Developmental stages that correspond to distinct libidinal urges. Progression through these stages profoundly affects personality. In each stage, libido is focused on one of the erogenous zones (mouth, anus, or genitals).
Oral stage (Freud)
Psychosexual stages, Freud. Birth - 18 mos. Infants seek pleasure through the mouth, eg. breastfeeding.
Anal stage (Freud)
Psychosexual stages, Freud. 2-3 years old. Toddlers focus on the anus, as they are toilet training.
Phallic stage (Freud)
Psychosexual stages, Freud. 3-5 years old. Focus libidinal energy on the genitals without sexual intent.
Latency stage (Freud)
Psychosexual stages, Freud. Suppression of libidinal urges, or the channeling of said urges into schoolwork/building social networks.
Genital stage (Freud)
Psychosexual stages, Freud. Adolescents and adults. Mature attitudes about sexuality, adulthood. Libidinal urges directed towards reproduction, contribution towards society.
Oedipus complex (Freud)
Freud. Children desire a relationship with the opposite sex parent, therefore considering the same sex parent a rival, harbouring a desire to kill them. Children repress desires, identify with same-sex parent. Mostly applicable to boys. The theory is not supported.
Freud. Excessive parental restriction or indulgence leads to this. At oral stage = oral personalities (needy, pleasure through mouth eg. smoking). At anal phase = anal-retentive personalities (stubborn, highly regulating).
Reject certain aspects of Freudian thinking, eg. misogyny or emphasis on sexual forces, but embrace the notion of unconscious conflict.
Adler (neo-Freudian). Primary conflict as based on fears of inadequacy.
Object relations theory
Contemporary neo-Freudians. Person's mind and sense of self develop in relation to others in a particular environment.
Approaches to studying personality that emphasize how people seek to fulfill their potential through greater self-understanding. Eg. emphasize personal experience, belief systems, uniqueness of human condition, inherent goodness.
Maslow believes this is the ultimate human motive. This is the basis of humanistic approaches to personality.
Person-centered approach (Rogers)
Emphasis on people's subjective understandings of their lives. Highlights the importance of how parental treatment, esp. affection, affects personality development.
Unconditional positive regard (Rogers)
To contrast conditional love (parents love kid only if kid does what they desire), he argued parents should accept and prize their children no matter how they behave.
Fully functioning person (Rogers)
Child raised with unconditional positive regard. Has healthy sense of self-esteem.
This school of psychologists rejected the idea that personality is the result of internal processes. Instead, they saw it as learned responses to patterns of reinforcement. (Originally)
Kelly. Personal theories of how the world works. They develop through experiences, and represent interpretations and explanations of events.
Rotter and Behaviour
Behaviour as a function of two things: expectancies for reinforcement; and values we ascribe to particular reinforcers.
Internal locus of control (Rotter)
People believe they will bring about their own rewards.
External locus of control (Rotter)
People believe rewards and their personal fates result from forces beyond their control.
Cognitive-social theories of personality
Resulted from incorporation of cognition into learning theories. Eg. our mental capacities - beliefs, thoughts, expectations - interact with environments and influence behaviour.
Cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS)
Mischel. Cognitive-social theory. Personalities fail to predict our behaviour; instead, our responses are influenced by perception of a situation, emotional responses to the situation, skills in dealing with challenges, and anticipation of the outcomes of our behaviour.
Norem and Cantor. Personality style. People expect to fail, enter test situation with dread. However, they perform the same on tests as optimists. They can be relieved when they succeed.
CAPS model and other cognitive-social theories emphasize this. Relative ability to set personal goals, evaluate progress, adjust behaviour. In this view, personality is due to motives and strivings.
Discrete categories of people based on personality characteristics.
Implicit personality theory
Study of two tendencies related to personality types. 1) Tend to assume that certain personality characteristics go together. 2) Tend to make predictions about people based on minimal evidence.
Approach to studying personality that focuses on how individuals differ in personality dispositions.
Cattell's dimensions of personality
Used factor analysis and grouped traits according to their similarities - came up with 16 basic dimensions of personality.
Eysenck's hierarchical model of personality
Specific response level - observed behaviour.
Habitual response level - repeated behaviour.
Trait level - behaviour repeated many times.
Superordinate traits - eg. impulsiveness, sociability, introversion/extroversion, emotional stability, and psychoticism.
These two coined by Carl Jung, seen at the superordinate level in Eysenck's hierarchical model of personality. Refers to how shy/sociable, reserved/outgoing, and quiet/bold a person is. Eysenck believed that is reflected differences in biological functioning.
Emotional stability (Eysenck)
Superordinate trait. How much a person's moods and emotions change. Low in emotional stability = neurotic - frequent mood swings, esp. negative emotions, with a low opinion of self.
Superordinate trait. Mix of aggression, impulse control, and empathy. High in this = aggressive, impulsive, self-centered. More recently called constraint.
Idea that personality can be described using five factors: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Each factor is a continuum, and is made up of lower-order traits. Significant cross-cultural and age group proof for this theory. It is a valuable descriptive framework, although it ignores subtleties.
Person-centered approaches to studying personality. They focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons. Comprised of central traits (important to how people describe themselves, more predictive of behaviour) and secondary traits (less unique to that person). Researchers use case studies, and consider personality as a narrative that unfolds over time.
Approaches to studying personality that focus on how common characteristics vary from person to person. Researchers often use scales.
Personality tests that explore unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli. Eg. Rorschach inkblot test, THematic Apperception Test (TAT).
Relatively direct assessments of personality, usually based on information gathered through self-report questionnaires or observer ratings. They often require people to make subjective judgments, and can be affected by self-report bias or different interpretation of the trait. Eg. California Q-Sort - sort cards with descriptions on them into ranked piles.
Theory that behaviour is determined more by situations than by personality traits. Offers explanation for inconsistency of traits. Has sparked vigorous debate between social and personality psychologists.
Sparked by situationism. Personality researchers argue that trait prediction of behaviour depends on three things: centrality of the trait, aggregation of behaviours over time, type of trait being evaluated. People tend to be more consistent in central traits, and average of behaviours over time more accurately predicted by traits.
Theorists who believe that behaviour is determined jointly by situations and underlying dispositions. Differentiate between strong situations (eg. job interview) that mask personality differences, and weak situations (eg. bar) which reveal differences. Also, people affect their own social environments through choice or behaviour.
Animals and personality
Studies suggest that animals have clear evidence of basic personality traits, similar to but not the same as the Big Five. This suggests that traits are biologically based, passed along through genes.
Personality and genetics
Twin studies have shown that there is a strong genetic component for personality, even in twins raised apart. Adoption studies also show that adopted children bear little personality similarity to their adopted family. Siblings (non-twins) may be different because of lives outside of the home. There are also specific genes that predispose us to have certain personality traits or behavioural tendencies.
Biologically based tendencies to feel or act in certain ways. There are three personality characteristics considered as temperaments, influenced by genes. Sex differences found in self-control and activity. Early childhood temperament may be predictive of later behaviour.
Temperament. Overall amount of energy, and of behaviour.
Temperament. Intensity of emotional reactions.
Temperament. General tendency to affiliate with others.
Diagnosis as an infant, characteristic as biologically determined. Infant, when shown new object or strange situation, will react, be startled, distressed. This predicts shyness in later ages, and even anxiety in adulthood. Amygdala is involved in shyness. However, shyness varies culturally.
Ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)
Eysenck. Regulates cortical arousal or alertness. Eysenck believes that cortical arousal produced behavioural differences between introverts and extroverts. Optimal levels of arousal for each - extroverts seek out more arousal. Introverts experience many things, inc. pain, more intensely. This theory has been refined.
Behavioural approach system (BAS)
Gray. Brain system involved in the pursuit of incentives or rewards. Evolved to help organisms respond more efficiently to reinforcement, punishment. Suggested that this system is stronger in extroverts.
Behavioural inhibition system (BIS)
Gray. Brain system that is sensitive to punishment. Inhibits behaviour that might lead to danger, pain. Evolved to help organisms respond more efficiently to reinforcement, punishment. Suggested that this system is stronger in introverts.
Personality is adaptive
Personality is adaptive.
Stability of personality traits
Personality traits seem to be stable over time. It is important that are definitions determine whether personality is unchangeable or continuous. Change can be found in personality in childhood, but is very stable in middle age. Pattern: people become more agreeable in later age, less risk-taking. Changes to biological make-up, eg. brain injury, can change personality.
McCrae and Costa. Dispositional traits determined largely by biological processes. Stable.
McCrae and Costa. Adjustments to situational demands. Tend to be consistent. Do not signify changes in basic tendencies. Eg. Woman is extrovert: goes to parties in 20s, less so in 50s, but still goes out with friends - basic tendency still the same (extroversion).
Everything you know about yourself. Cognitive knowledge structure - helps to adjust environment, respond to events. Eg. think of self as optimistic, can bounce back from a bad grade.
The self that is known. The knowledge that the subject holds about itself, eg. best and worst qualities.
Sense of self as the object of attention. The "I" thinks about the "me". Leads people to act in accordance with beliefs (eg. sitting in front of mirror when writing a test = less cheating). Highly dependent on normal development to frontal lobes.
Higgins. Individual's awareness of differences between personal standards and goals leads to strong emotions. Damage to frontal lobes may result in social, motivational impairments.
(Eg. cocktail party effect where you hear your name clearly in a crowded room.) Markus. Cognitive aspect of the self-concept. Consists of an integrated set of memories, beliefs, generalizations of the self. Helps us perceive, organize, interpret, use info about the self. Examples of important behaviour become prominent. Enhanced memory for info about selves. Frontal lobes.
Immediate experience of the self. Limited to amount of personal info that can be processed cognitively at a certain time - varies from situation to situation.
Evaluative aspect of the self-concept. Person's emotional response to contemplating personal characteristics. However, people can believe positive things about selves and still have low this; and conversely.
Person's self-esteem is based on how they believe others perceive them. People internalize opinions of important people in their lives.
Internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection. Leary and colleagues argued that self-esteem is a mechanism for monitoring the likelihood of social rejection, and is therefore THIS.
Terror management theory
Self-esteem related to humans' anxiety over their mortality, protects people from horror associated with knowing they die eventually.
Trait associated with inflated self-esteem, demonstrates that high self-esteem does not necessarily correlate with success. These people have poor relationships with others, as they view themselves as the best and require special treatment. They often abuse people who do not give them this special treatment.
Most people describe themselves as above average in every way, and show favouritism to anything associated with themselves. People also unrealistically perceive their personal control over events, and are unrealistically optimistic about their personal features. These positive illusions can be adaptive, or can lead to trouble.
Technique to maintain positive illusions. Causes people to exaggerate or publicize their connections to winners, and minimize or hide their relations to losers. This positive comparison only achievable if the person thinks that the success is attainable for themselves.
Technique to maintain positive illusions. People evaluate their own actions, abilities, beliefs by contrasting them with other people's, esp. when no objective criteria exists. People with high self-esteem look downward; people with low self-esteem look up.
Tendency for people to take personal credit for success, but blame failure on external factors.
People's self-concepts in collectivist cultures (eg. Easterners) determined by social roles, personal relationships - not supposed to challenge given roles.
People's self-concepts in individualistic cultures (eg. Westerners) more self-reliant, focused on personal success, even at the expense of interpersonal relationships.
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