Chapter 5 Test(The Periodic Law)
Terms in this set (37)
the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.
an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group.
the 14 elements with atomic numbers 58 to 71.
the 14 elements with atomic numbers 90 to 103.
can be observed in any group of elements in the periodic table with respect to atomic number.
Vertically arranged elements on the periodic table are called what?
Groups or families
Horizontally arranged elements on the periodic table are called what?
Group 1 of the periodic table is called what?
Group 2 of the periodic table is called what?
Groups 3-12 of the periodic table are called what?
The staircase on the periodic table separates what 2 types of elements?
Metalloids (AKA Semiconductors) from metals
Groups 14-16 contain what type of elements?
Metalloids, metals, and nonmetals
Group 17 of the periodic table is called what?
Group 18 of the periodic table is called what?
the p-block elements together with teh s-block elements.
defined as one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together.
What tends to happen to the atomic radii across a period?
Atomic radii across a period gets smaller due to the increasing positive charge of the nucleus.
What tends to happen to the atomic radii down a group?
Atomic radii down a group increases.
Ionization Energy (IE)
the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element.
any process that results in the formation of an ion.
What tends to happen to the ionization energy across a period?
Ionization energy across a period increases.
What tends to happen to the ionization energy down a group?
Ionization energy down a group decreases.
Each successive electron removed from an ion feels what?
...an increasingly stronger effective nuclear charge (the nuclear charge minus the electron shielding).
the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom.
What tends to happen to the electron affinity across a period?
Electron affinity across a period increases.
based on electron configuration.
What tends to happen to the ionic radii across a period?
Ionic radii of both anions and cations get smaller across a period.
What tends to happen to the ionic radii down a group?
Ionic radii of both anions and cations get larger down a group.
the electron available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds.
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons from another atom in the compound.
What tends to happen to electronegativity across a period?
Electronegativity across a period increases (although there are a few hiccups).
What tends to happen to electronegativity down a group?
Electronegativity down a group tends to decrease or remain the same.
...different amount of electrons in them.
Can ions be neutral?
No, ions are always either positive or negative.
ions with a positive charge (more protons than electrons)
ions with a negative charge (more electrons than protons)
used to calculate electronegativity and is based directly on the energy of particular bonds within a molecule.