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Twentieth century characteristics
-New instruments: Mostly percussion
-New vocal and instrumental sounds: Sprechstimme, rap, Prepared piano
-Expanded playing techniques; uncommon techniques become natural, heightened awareness of tone colors, harmony, less concerned with establishing a key.
How did technology influence and change music?
Sound. By 1950s, tape recording made possible longer recordings, editing, and improved sound quality. In digital technology, the electric signal is converted into digital information by sampling the waveform at an extremely high rate . Popular music is the dominant commercial force in musical life
Atonality or Atonal music
the principle of avoiding both the tonic and it's corollary; music that is not centered around a central key or scale
Late nineteenth and early twentieth-century movement in the arts that sought to convey the deep emotions that lie under the surface of-and are often obscured by-objective reality
"speech voice" vocal style between speech and
singing that approximates the pitches but sticks closely to the rhythm
late 19th and early 20th century movement in the arts that favored exploration of elements such as light, color, and sound over literal representation
scale that divides the octave into 6 equal segments a whole tone or whole step apart
an interest in the art and music of non-Western and
non-literate societies and in music: the use of insistent rhythms and percussive sounds, dissonance, narrow range melodies, primeval subjects
The Rite of Spring basic plot
A ballet by Stravinsky about pagan rituals which culminate in a girl dancing herself to death as a sacrifice to the god of Spring
John Philip Sousa
Famous band leader/conductor and composer of band music.Known as the "March King" / America's best known composer during his lifetime
large performing ensemble consisting of woodwinds
including saxophones, brasses, and percussion instruments
work (for concert band) that typically includes four or five melodies or "strains" that are 16 or 32 measures in length, usually written in a duple meter and performed at a brisk walking tempo
by 1940s, was considered the 1st great American composer and arguably the most original composer. He used 20th century techniques such as polytonality, atonality,polyphony, and unusual chords while quoting familiar songs.
Mexico's most important composer and musical figure during the middle of the 20th century. One of the composers who sparked the "Aztec Renaissance" of classical music that was distinctly Mexican in theme and style.
America's best known classical composer. Created an accessible style with a distinctly American identity. He used jazz influences, folk-songs, hymns, and familiar songs with 20th century techniques such as thin textures, wide intervals, and using silence.
was a means of asserting national identity by drawing on the legends, history, and literature of the people, creating vocal music in their own language, and drawing on folk song and dance
Syncopated American musical style of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that began as dance music in the bordello districts of New Orleans
Forerunner of Jazz; Characterized by 12-bar form, call and response between voice and instrument, blue notes, and phrases that start on high notes and end low. Very personal topics.
A strophic form with well-established conventions for the lyrics, harmony, texture, and form
Series using the three basic chords of common practice harmony at its foundation, with each phrase beginning with a different chord and returning to the tonic chord halfway through the phrase
characteristics: more syncopation and/or less insistent beat keeping, extensive improvisation, and more adventurous
the wind and brass instruments (or other melody-line instruments) in a jazz combo; from the position of the players on the bandstand, standing in a line in front of the rhythm instruments; front line or melody-line instruments, cornet/trumpet, clarinet, trombone, improvise against the rhythm section
The part of a musical group that supplies the rhythmic and harmonic foundation of a performance; usually includes at least one chord instrument, a bass instrument, and a percussion instrument
creating music spontaneously rather than performing a previously learned song the same way every time
a new kind of jazz, primarily for listening, which evolved during the mid-1940s and featured a rapid tempo and irregular melodic lines that at times sounded like the new style's name
Short melodic kernel in popular music that functions much like a motive in classical music but on a more modest scale
one of the leading Expressionist composers, a
pioneering composer of Atonal music, and created Serialism or Twelve Tone Composition
Serialism or Twelve-tone Composition
System of pitch organization in which all twelve pitches within the octave are organized into a series rather than organized hierarchically
In serial composition, the arrangement of all twelve pitches within the octave in a particular sequence
Reversal of the original sequence of twelve pitches in a serial composition(backward) one of the 4 basic ways to treat a
In serial composition, reversing the direction of the intervals between pitches of the tone row one of the 4 basic ways to treat a tone row
Student and friend of Schoenberg who wrote brief, clean, delicate pieces. Composed using serialism, total serialism, and Klangfrabenmelodie
expands the concept of 12 tone technique to include the organization of any musical element such as rhythm, texture, dynamics, and timbre
Klangfarbenmelodie or Tone color melody
is a succession of tone colors treated as a structural equivalent to a melody
For wind players, playing more than one pitch simultaneously on an instrument designed to play one note at a time
Music created by recording sounds not produced by musical instruments, extracting sound snippets, and subjecting them to various modification
is sounds produced on or in electronic equipment such as synthesizers and computers
Is a pioneer in Minimalism
Music for 18 musicians, Section IIIA
For 4 vocalist, violin, cello, clarinets, pitched percussion, piano
A diverse body of music with little activity or little change in activity; a comprehensive rejection of serialism and the European tradition from which it came
American composer, inventor of the prepared piano, and
most famous and influential creator of chance music
John Cage's technique of changing the piano's timbre by inserting objects among its strings
20th century avant-Garde music that introduced the element of chance into composition and performance, such as determining the order of performance through the toss of a coin
Lighthearted stage entertainment born in the early twentieth century, featuring a great deal of singing, dancing, and comedy
The most widely used popular song form through the late 1950s; featured a storytelling verse followed by a tuneful chorus, or refrain
In verse-chorus songs, that part of a song in which both melody and lyrics are repeated; also called refrain
one of America¹s most multi-talented musicians of the 20th century, conductor, composer, pianist, lecturer/commentator, and author, and combined classical and popular music styles in his works
West Side Story basic plot
a retelling of the Romeo (Tony) and Juliet (Maria) story set in contemporary New York City among rival gangs, the Jets and the Sharks
Blues piano style characterized by repetitive accompaniment patterns in a low register
originally well-known for Folk music, significant for his poetry/lyrics, first went electric on his album Bringing It All Back Home, not typical Rock music, his singing isn¹t conventional, but rather closer speech and ideal for the commentary of the lyrics
early works were inspired by early American rock and roll groups, among the first to write melody-oriented songs that were in step with the changes in popular music, and created music that supportedtheir lyrics
composer, arranger, conductor, pianist, popular
film composer for nearly 80 films, has also composed numerous concertos, and has a Neo-Romantic style
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