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66 terms

Music Final

STUDY
PLAY
Twentieth century characteristics
-New instruments: Mostly percussion
-New vocal and instrumental sounds: Sprechstimme, rap, Prepared piano
-Expanded playing techniques; uncommon techniques become natural, heightened awareness of tone colors, harmony, less concerned with establishing a key.
How did technology influence and change music?
Sound. By 1950s, tape recording made possible longer recordings, editing, and improved sound quality. In digital technology, the electric signal is converted into digital information by sampling the waveform at an extremely high rate . Popular music is the dominant commercial force in musical life
Atonality or Atonal music
the principle of avoiding both the tonic and it's corollary; music that is not centered around a central key or scale
Expressionism
Late nineteenth and early twentieth-century movement in the arts that sought to convey the deep emotions that lie under the surface of-and are often obscured by-objective reality
Sprechstimme
"speech voice" vocal style between speech and
singing that approximates the pitches but sticks closely to the rhythm
Impressionism
late 19th and early 20th century movement in the arts that favored exploration of elements such as light, color, and sound over literal representation
Whole-tone Scale
scale that divides the octave into 6 equal segments a whole tone or whole step apart
Primitivism
an interest in the art and music of non-Western and
non-literate societies and in music: the use of insistent rhythms and percussive sounds, dissonance, narrow range melodies, primeval subjects
The Rite of Spring basic plot
A ballet by Stravinsky about pagan rituals which culminate in a girl dancing herself to death as a sacrifice to the god of Spring
John Philip Sousa
Famous band leader/conductor and composer of band music.Known as the "March King" / America's best known composer during his lifetime
Concert band
large performing ensemble consisting of woodwinds
including saxophones, brasses, and percussion instruments
March
work (for concert band) that typically includes four or five melodies or "strains" that are 16 or 32 measures in length, usually written in a duple meter and performed at a brisk walking tempo
Charles Ives
by 1940s, was considered the 1st great American composer and arguably the most original composer. He used 20th century techniques such as polytonality, atonality,polyphony, and unusual chords while quoting familiar songs.
Carlos Chavez
Mexico's most important composer and musical figure during the middle of the 20th century. One of the composers who sparked the "Aztec Renaissance" of classical music that was distinctly Mexican in theme and style.
Aaron Copland
America's best known classical composer. Created an accessible style with a distinctly American identity. He used jazz influences, folk-songs, hymns, and familiar songs with 20th century techniques such as thin textures, wide intervals, and using silence.
Nationalism
was a means of asserting national identity by drawing on the legends, history, and literature of the people, creating vocal music in their own language, and drawing on folk song and dance
Ragtime, Rag
Syncopated American musical style of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that began as dance music in the bordello districts of New Orleans
Blues
Forerunner of Jazz; Characterized by 12-bar form, call and response between voice and instrument, blue notes, and phrases that start on high notes and end low. Very personal topics.
Twelve-bar Blues
A strophic form with well-established conventions for the lyrics, harmony, texture, and form
Call and response
Regular exchanges between contrasting voices
Blues progression
Series using the three basic chords of common practice harmony at its foundation, with each phrase beginning with a different chord and returning to the tonic chord halfway through the phrase
Blue note
"Bent," expressive note outside the major scale
Jazz
characteristics: more syncopation and/or less insistent beat keeping, extensive improvisation, and more adventurous
harmony
Frontline
the wind and brass instruments (or other melody-line instruments) in a jazz combo; from the position of the players on the bandstand, standing in a line in front of the rhythm instruments; front line or melody-line instruments, cornet/trumpet, clarinet, trombone, improvise against the rhythm section
Rhythm section
The part of a musical group that supplies the rhythmic and harmonic foundation of a performance; usually includes at least one chord instrument, a bass instrument, and a percussion instrument
Improvisation
creating music spontaneously rather than performing a previously learned song the same way every time
Syncopation
an accent that conflicts with the beat or meter instead of confirming it
Scat singing
An improvised instrumental-style vocal with no words
Bebop, Bop
a new kind of jazz, primarily for listening, which evolved during the mid-1940s and featured a rapid tempo and irregular melodic lines that at times sounded like the new style's name
Riff
Short melodic kernel in popular music that functions much like a motive in classical music but on a more modest scale
Arnold Schoenberg
one of the leading Expressionist composers, a
pioneering composer of Atonal music, and created Serialism or Twelve Tone Composition
Serialism or Twelve-tone Composition
System of pitch organization in which all twelve pitches within the octave are organized into a series rather than organized hierarchically
Tone Row
In serial composition, the arrangement of all twelve pitches within the octave in a particular sequence
Prime
the original tone row
Retrograde
Reversal of the original sequence of twelve pitches in a serial composition(backward) one of the 4 basic ways to treat a
tone row
Retrograde Inversion
one of the 4 basic ways to treat a tone row
Inversion
In serial composition, reversing the direction of the intervals between pitches of the tone row one of the 4 basic ways to treat a tone row
Anton Webern
Student and friend of Schoenberg who wrote brief, clean, delicate pieces. Composed using serialism, total serialism, and Klangfrabenmelodie
Total serialism
expands the concept of 12 tone technique to include the organization of any musical element such as rhythm, texture, dynamics, and timbre
Klangfarbenmelodie or Tone color melody
is a succession of tone colors treated as a structural equivalent to a melody
Multiphonics
For wind players, playing more than one pitch simultaneously on an instrument designed to play one note at a time
Tone cluster
Effect produced by striking the piano keys with a fist or other objects
Synthesizer
Instrument capable of generating sound electronically
Sampling
Transfer of a recorded sound from its source into another recording
Musique concrete
Music created by recording sounds not produced by musical instruments, extracting sound snippets, and subjecting them to various modification
Electronic composition
is sounds produced on or in electronic equipment such as synthesizers and computers
Steve Reich
Is a pioneer in Minimalism
Music for 18 musicians, Section IIIA
For 4 vocalist, violin, cello, clarinets, pitched percussion, piano
Minimalism
A diverse body of music with little activity or little change in activity; a comprehensive rejection of serialism and the European tradition from which it came
John Cage
American composer, inventor of the prepared piano, and
most famous and influential creator of chance music
Prepared piano
John Cage's technique of changing the piano's timbre by inserting objects among its strings
Chance music
20th century avant-Garde music that introduced the element of chance into composition and performance, such as determining the order of performance through the toss of a coin
Musical comedy
Lighthearted stage entertainment born in the early twentieth century, featuring a great deal of singing, dancing, and comedy
Verse-chorus form
The most widely used popular song form through the late 1950s; featured a storytelling verse followed by a tuneful chorus, or refrain
Chorus
In verse-chorus songs, that part of a song in which both melody and lyrics are repeated; also called refrain
Leonard Bernstein
one of America¹s most multi-talented musicians of the 20th century, conductor, composer, pianist, lecturer/commentator, and author, and combined classical and popular music styles in his works
West Side Story basic plot
a retelling of the Romeo (Tony) and Juliet (Maria) story set in contemporary New York City among rival gangs, the Jets and the Sharks
Rock Musical
Theater work that shows the influence of rock in spirit and style
Boogie woogie
Blues piano style characterized by repetitive accompaniment patterns in a low register
Overdubbing
Process of recording additional sounds on an existing recording
Honky-tonk
Post-World War II country style popularized by such artists as Hank Williams
Bob Dylan
originally well-known for Folk music, significant for his poetry/lyrics, first went electric on his album Bringing It All Back Home, not typical Rock music, his singing isn¹t conventional, but rather closer speech and ideal for the commentary of the lyrics
The Beatles
early works were inspired by early American rock and roll groups, among the first to write melody-oriented songs that were in step with the changes in popular music, and created music that supportedtheir lyrics
Concept album
Album unified by a particular creative theme
Cover
Remake of an existing song
John Williams
composer, arranger, conductor, pianist, popular
film composer for nearly 80 films, has also composed numerous concertos, and has a Neo-Romantic style
Spotting
Process during composing film that involves viewing the film and determining those scenes where music will enhance the on-screen events