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C4H Chapter 13: Domes
Terms in this set (14)
Although a dome is considered as a series of arches, a dome's behavior is significantly
different from that of an arch. How do they differ?
What makes the dome behave differently is the fact that the hypothetical arches it consists of are joined together along the vertical sections of the dome, making it a monolithic structure. Its reduced thickness and the disappearance of buttresses and tie-rods are due entirely to its monolithicity.
The reduction in dome thickness as compared to arches is quite dramatic.
Unlike arches, domes do not require large buttresses at their base. Explain this
statement using the analogy of meridians and parallels.
The continuity of the dome's surface allows such reduction in thickness by introducing an action along its horizontal sections or parallels (Fig. 13.1) that prevents the arched meridians from opening up. The parallels behave like the hoops of a barrel molding the staves, making them into a single surface.
What are the two consequences of preventing the meridional deformations in domes?
First, it makes the dome much stiffer and prevents the buckling of the compressed meridians. Thus the dome can be made thinner without endangering stability. Secondly, it prevents the opening-up of the dome at its bottom, doing away with the need for external buttresses or internal tie-rods. Actually, the bottom parallels in tension are the circular tie-rod that prevents the opening-up of the dome.
Are domes efficient in the use of construction materials? Explain dome efficiency in
terms of the distribution of developed stresses.
If one remembers how inefficient bending-stresses are, since they use properly only the material away from the neutral axis, one realizes that in addition to all of its other characteristics the dome is an extremely efficient structure in terms of the use of materials. Cover a large amount of space with a small amount of materiel.
What is the neutral axis? Where does it exist in domes? Define the system of stresses in
domes with respect to that axis.
...The level of force where there is no tension and no compression. Domes have tension around the outer ring of the bottom, which is counteracted by compression of the ring around the base.
The Pantheon was the largest dome of antiquity with a diameter that was not surpassed
for 1300 years. List five innovations used in this structure.
2.Increased dome thickness
3. Used pumice in the top section to reduce weight
4. Thick bottom to ensure for minimal tensile force
5. Octagonal base
Even after the completion of the octagonal drum on which the dome of Santa Maria del
Fiore was to be supported, the idea of dome of this size seemed intimidating. Why?
Because thicker domes that had been previously built had failed. Also, renowned architects worried that the dome would collapse under its huge weight.
What was the innovation that made the dome of Santa Maria Del Fiore possible?
The "incredible invention of Pippo" had many components, the most important of which was its double-masonry dome (Fig. 13.8). This double-dome consisted of a thick inner octagonal shell connected by meridional arched ribs to a thinner outer shell. The inner dome was thus protected from the weather,
What was the major difference between the dome of the pantheon and that of Santa
Maria Del Fiore?
The Pantheon's strength comes in its weight, but the Santa Maria Del Fiore owes its strength to the double walled dome.
How was Brunelleschi able to get brick masonry to work as if it were a continuous layer
Used brick masonry to work bricks vertically to form a continuous spiral (herring-bone pattern)
Three ground piers only support the enormous dome of the CNIT building in Paris.
Describe the construction method that made this dome possible.
The method was to make the distances between the piers equilateral from one another to form an equilateral triangle, the strongest kind.
Describe the section composition of the CNIT dome in Paris. Name three features that
contribute to the stability of this dome.
1. 2 layers with a 2.5 inch thick diaphragm in between.
2. This reduces the probability of buckling, as the space in between promotes slipping in the direction of construction.
3. Corrugated shape (ridges and grooves)
The Louisiana Superdome and the Astrodome weigh around 30 pound per square foot
(psf) of roof, whereas Santa Maria del Fiore's inner dome alone weigh about 700 psf.
Name three factors that made this weight reduction possible.
1. Used steel rather than brick and mortar.
2.Used advanced computer modeling techniques to predict the needed parameters. (No unnessicary weight distribution)
3. advanced construction technique
"The fact is that our monuments are more often engineering rather than architectural
achievements". What is the message this statement communicates?
Engineers provide the logistics behind a potentially unviable architectural vision.
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