20 terms

SCOTUS Vocabulary: Civil Rights

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Civil Rights
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated slaves were not citizens: slaves were property no matter where they were living and the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
13th Amendment
Abolition of slavery
14th Amendment
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Equal Protection clause
14th amendment clause that prohibits states from denying equal protection under the law, and has been used to combat discrimination
"Separate but equal"
Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
De facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
De jure segregation
Racial segregation that is required by law
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
Poll taxes
required citizens of a state to pay a special tax in order to vote
Grandfather clause
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.
Comparable worth
Women should be paid salaries equal to men for equivalent job responsibilities &skills
Title IX
A United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commercial buildings.
Affirmative Action
A policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
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