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35 terms

Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

What is Acidosis?
low pH
How do your lungs correct Acidosis?
if we decrease our CO2, we can increase the pH. We do this by hyperventilating and blowing off our CO2 however, this is limited by the amount of CO2 we have in our bodies; once we have blown off all our CO2, there is no more that the lungs can do to help us compensate.
How do your kidneys correct Acidosis?
your kidneys will try to excrete H+ and retain HCO3-. The drawback of this is that it takes a few days to be effective but, it is a lot more powerful than respiratory compensation.
What is Alkylosis?
high pH
How do your lungs correct Alkylosis?
our lungs can try to compensate by slowing down our breathing to increase our CO2 however, this can be dangerous because it can cause hypoxia (lack of oxygen). The benefit of respiratory compensation is that it happens very quickly (a few minutes) however, it has a very limited range of effectiveness.
How do your kidneys correct Alkylosis?
your kidneys will try to retain H+ and excrete HCO3-. The drawback of this is that it takes a few days to be effective but, it is a lot more powerful than respiratory compensation.
Explain how water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent.
Electrolytes are dissolved in the water of body fluids. This means that if the concentration of one is altered, it will alter the concentrations of the other by making them either more dilute or more concentrated.
All of the water and electrolytes enclosed by cell membranes constitute the:
intracellular fluid
Explain how the fluids in the compartments differ in composition.
Extracellular fluids generally have similar compositions, including relatively high concentrations of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions, and lesser concentrations of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and sulfate ions. The blood plasma fraction contains considerably more protein than either interstitial fluid or lymph.
Intracellular fluid contains relatively high concentrations of potassium, phosphate, and magnesium ions, a somewhat greater concentration of sulfate ions, and lesser concentrations of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions. It also has a greater concentration of protein than plasma.
Describe how fluid movements between the compartments are controlled
There are two main factors that regulate fluid and electrolyte movement between the compartments. They are:
Hydrostatic pressure—Hydrostatic pressure, or blood pressure, is the amount of force that the water is exerting on the blood vessel walls. It is the main reason that fluid enters the interstitial space from the capillaries.
Osmotic pressure—Osmotic pressure, the "attraction" of water to solutes, is the main factor in water and electrolyte movement. Any changes in the amounts of water will cause the movement of solutes in the appropriate direction until the concentrations on both sides are stabilized. Any change in the concentration of the solutes will cause water to move in the same way.
Prepare a list of sources of normal water gain and loss to illustrate how the input of water equals the output of water.
Water is taken in by drinking water and beverages, eating moist foods, and from oxidative processes within the body. Water is lost in urine, feces, sweat, insensible perspiration, and evaporation during breathing. The average amount of water taken in daily is 2,500 ml. Controlling these mechanisms loses this amount daily.
Define water of metabolism
Normal oxidative metabolism of nutrients produces water as a by-product. This water is called water of metabolism
Explain how water intake is regulated
The primary regulator of water intake is thirst. The intense feeling of thirst derives from the thirst center in the hypothalamus which seems to be sensitive to the osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluids. As water is lost from the body, the osmotic pressure increases and the osmoreceptors of the thirst center are stimulated to produce a thirst sensation. This mechanism is triggered when one to two percent of the total body water is lost. The sensation ceases as a result of the stomach being distended. So, a person usually stops drinking long before the water is actually absorbed.
Explain how the kidneys regulate water output.
When water volume is low, the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus signal for the hormone ADH to be released. ADH, in the kidneys, causes the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts to become permeable to water, and the water is reabsorbed into the bloodstream. When the water volume is excessive, the osmoreceptors inhibit ADH secretion, and the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts remain impermeable to water. This prevents reabsorption, and the excess water is excreted in the urine.
Electrolytes in body fluids that are of importance to cellular functions include:
A) sodium
B) potassium
C) calcium
D) chloride
E) all of the above
E) all of the above
Explain how electrolyte intake is regulated.
Normally responding to hunger and thirst provide sufficient electrolytes. A severe electrolyte deficiency may produce salt craving (the desire to eat salty foods).
List the routes by which electrolytes leave the body.
The greatest amount of electrolyte output occurs with the actions of the kidneys and urine production. Some electrolytes are lost by perspiration, which varies with the amount of perspiration produced. Also, varying amounts are lost in feces.
Explain how the adrenal cortex functions to regulate electrolyte balance.
Sodium ions account for nearly ninety percent of the positively charged ions in extracellular fluids. As the concentration of sodium ions decreases, the adrenal cortex secretes the hormone aldosterone. The presence of this hormone causes the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts of the renal tubules to increase the reabsorption of the sodium ions. Aldosterone also functions to regulate potassium. In fact, the most important stimulus for aldosterone secretion is a rise in potassium ion concentration. So, aldosterone functions to increase the secretion of potassium ions.
Describe the role of the parathyroid glands in regulating electrolyte balance.
The parathyroid glands act in response to decreasing concentrations of calcium. When this occurs, the parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, which causes the concentrations of the phosphate ions in the extracellular fluids to increase.
Describe the role of the renal tubules in regulating electrolyte balance.
The permeability of the renal tubule aids in the control of electrolyte balance by passively reabsorbing negatively charged ions that follow positively charged ones. For instance, when sodium (Na+) is reabsorbed, chloride (Cl-) follows.
Define an acid, a base.
Electrolytes that ionize in water and release hydrogen ions are called acids. Any substance that combines with hydrogen ions is called a base.
List five sources of hydrogen ions in the body fluids, and name an acid that originates from each source.
a. Aerobic respiration of glucose—carbonic acid
b. Anaerobic respiration of glucose—lactic acid
c. Incomplete oxidation of fatty acids—acidic ketone bodies
d. Oxidation of amino acids containing sulfur—sulfuric acid
e. Breakdown of phospho- and nucleoproteins—phosphoric acid
___________ dissociate to release hydrogen ions more completely. An example is hydrochloric acid.
Strong acids
__________ dissociate to release fewer hydroxide ions.
Weak bases
Explain how an acid-base buffer system functions.
There are three main acid-base buffer systems in the body. They are chemical substances that combine with acids or bases when either occurs in excess. The substances in these systems function by shedding or accepting hydrogen ions in the presence of strong bases or acids. This helps to neutralize substances that could alter the pH levels in the body.
Describe how the bicarbonate buffer system resists changes in pH
The bicarbonate buffer system occurs in both intra- and extracellular fluids. It consists of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). If a strong acid is present, it reacts with sodium bicarbonate to produce carbonic acid and sodium chloride, minimizing the increasing concentration of hydrogen ions. If a strong base is present, it reacts with carbonic acid, producing sodium bicarbonate and water, minimizing the alkaline shift.
Explain why a protein has both acidic and basic properties
The protein buffer system consists of the plasma proteins such as albumin and various proteins within the cells (including the hemoglobin of red blood cells). Because some amino acids have freely exposed carboxyl groups (-COOH), under some conditions these groups can become ionized and a hydrogen ion is released.
Other amino acids have a freely exposed amino group (-NH2), which can accept hydrogen ions. Thus, protein molecules can function as acids by releasing hydrogen ions, or as bases by accepting hydrogen ions. This property allows protein molecules to act as a self-controlling acid-base buffer system.
Describe how a protein functions as a buffer system.
Altered carboxyl groups can now accept hydrogen ions in an acidic environment, while the altered amino groups can release a hydrogen ion in a basic environment. In this way, a protein can act as a buffer system when necessary.
Describe the role of hemoglobin as a buffer.
Red blood cells contain an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase that speeds the reaction of carbon dioxide and water. This reaction produces carbonic acid, which quickly dissociates into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.
Hemoglobin can accept hydrogen ions into its molecular structure and thus, helps control pH levels.
Explain how the respiratory system functions in the regulation of acid-base balance.
The respiratory center in the brain stem helps to control hydrogen ion concentration by controlling the rate and depth of breathing. If the body's cells increase their production of carbon dioxide, the production of carbonic acid increases. When carbonic acid breaks down, the concentration of hydrogen ions increases and the pH drops.
Explain how the kidneys function in the regulation of acid-base balance.
The nephrons help regulate excess hydrogen ion concentration by excreting hydrogen ions. This is accomplished by the epithelial cells along certain segments of the renal tubules.
Describe the role of ammonia in the transport of hydrogen ions to the outside of the body.
Cells in the renal tubules are capable of deaminating certain amino acids, producing ammonia. Ammonia diffuses easily through the tubules into the urine. Because ammonia is a weak base, it accepts hydrogen ions to become ammonium ions, which are trapped in the urine because renal tubules are impermeable to them.
Distinguish between a chemical buffer system and a physiological buffer system.
A chemical buffer system is one that uses only chemical reactions to convert acids or bases almost immediately. These are acid-base buffer systems. A physiological buffer system is one that causes a change in the excretion of acids and bases by influencing the cells of an organ. Two examples are the respiratory center and the kidneys.
Distinguish between respiratory and metabolic acid-base imbalances
The two major types of acidosis are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis. Factors that increase carbon dioxide levels, also increase the concentration of carbonic acid (the respiratory acid), cause respiratory acidosis. Metabolic acidosis is due to an abnormal accumulation of any other acids in the body fluids or to a loss of bases, including bicarbonate ions. Similarly, the two major types of alkalosis are respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis. Excessive loss of carbon dioxide and consequent loss of carbonic acid cause respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis is due to excessive loss of hydrogen ions or gain of bases.
Explain how the body compensates for acid-base imbalances.
The nephrons help regulate excess hydrogen ion concentration by excreting hydrogen ions. This is accomplished by the epithelial cells along certain segments of the renal tubules.
Acid-base buffers function rapidly, and convert strong acids or bases almost immediately. Because they
act at the chemical level, they are called chemical buffers, and are the body's first line of defense against shifts in pH. Physiological buffer systems, such as the respiratory and renal mechanisms, function more slowly. The respiratory mechanism may take several minutes to begin. The renal mechanism may require one to three days. The physiologic body systems are known as the body's secondary defenses.
Chemical buffers, such as hemoglobin, may resist shift in pH. The respiratory center is stimulated to increase breathing rate, lowering carbon dioxide concentration. Kidneys may excrete more hydrogen ions.