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Pyschology 101 Chapter 5
Terms in this set (124)
The awareness of internal and external stimuli.
How many parts does the consciousness include?
The four parts of the consciousness?
1. Your awareness of external events.
2. Your awareness of internal sensations
3. Your awareness of your "self" as the unique being having these experieneces.
4. Your awareness of your thoughts about these experieneces.
Do the contents of your consciousness stay the same?
The contents are continually changing. Consciousness moves, fluctuates, flows, and wanders.
When does mind wandering occur?
Most often when we are bored, anxious, tired, or stressed.
William James named mind wandering what?
"The stream of consciousness."
Sigmund Freud believed what about the consciousness?
Believed that people's feelings and behaviors are influeneced by unconscious needs, wishes and conflicts that lie below the surface of conscious awareness. Believed that the 'stream of consciousness has depth'. Consciousness and unconsciousness processes are on different levelsof awareness.
What has research shown about the levels of awareness during sleep?
That people maintain some level of awareness during sleep, even when put under anethesia. And, the people remain aware of external events while asleep.
Where is consciousness located in the brain?
It does not arise from any distinct structure in the brain but rather is the result of activity in distributed networks of neural pathways.
Is a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp. It summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the brain in terms of line tracings called brain waves. This is the most common indicator of variations in consciousness.
What are the tracings of brain waves measured in?
Amplitude and frequency, cycles per second (cps).
Brain wave activity is divided into how many parts?
What are the four parts of brain wave activity?
Periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning, which means that organisms have internal "Biological Clocks" that somehow monitor the passage of time.
Are the 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species. In humans, it is influential in the regulation of sleep.
Daily cycles produce rhythmic variations in what?
1. Blood Pressure
2. Urine Production
3. Hormonal Secretions
4. And Other Physical Functions
5. Affects Alertness
6. Affects Short-Term Memory
7. Affects Aspects of Cognitive Performance
What happens to your body temperature when you sleep?
Your body temperature drops when you fall asleep and when it rises when you awaken.
Researchers have gathered what from body temperature?
Circadian rhythms can leave individuals physiologically primed to fall asleep at a particular time of day.
What happens if you ignore your circadian rhythms or biological clock?
Your sleep with suffer.
Why does "jet lag" occur?
Your biological clock says it is one time while the actual time is another because of traveling across different time zones.
Inferior sleep can result in what?
In feeling sluggish, fatigued, and irritable.
Shift workers have a difficult time because of what?
They are constantly at odds with their circadian rhythms and biological clocks.
Studies have linked rotating shift working with what?
A higher incidence of many physical diseases including cancer, diabetes, ulcers, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
Strategies to help shift workers
Carefully planning the rotation schedules to reduce the severity of their circadian disruption. The negative effects can be reduced if workers move through progressively later starter times and if they have longer periods between shift changes.
How many stages of sleep are there?
Does each person go through the same sleep stages?
The different stages of sleep are experienced by everyone, but the time it takes for each person to fall asleep is unique to that person.
This is a brief transition stage lasting 10-12 minutes during which your breathing and heart rate slow as well as your muscle tone and body temperature decline.
Respiration rate, heart rate, muscle tension, and body temperature continue to decline. Your brain waves become higher in amplitude and slower in frequency as you move into a deeper sleep called slow wave sleep.
Stages 3 and 4 consist of what?
Slow wave sleep.
REM Sleep and the stages
When you reach which should be stage 1 again, you usually go into the 5th stage of sleep. This stage is known as REM because of the rapid eye movements which are prominent during this stage.
When was REM discovered?
In 1950 by accident.
William Dement is famous for what?
The term REM was coined by him, he went on to become one of the world's foremost sleep researchers.
REM (Rapid Eye Movement)
REM is a deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, high frequency brain waves, and dreaming.
The first four stages of sleep, not including REM. This is marked by the absence of rapid eye movement, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity.
How many times is the sleep cycle usually repeated?
During the night what happens throughout each sleep cycle?
The first REM cycle is relatively short, subsequent REM cycles get progressively longer, while Non-REM cycle gets progressively shorter.
Does age affect your sleep?
Yes, age alters your sleep cycle.
Children and the Sleep Cycle
They display different patterns of sleep. Newborns sleep six to eight times during a 24 hour period, often exceeding a total of 16 hours of sleep.
Adults and the Sleep Cycle
Gradual age-related changes in sleep continue. REM sleep remains fairly stable but the percentage of Non-REM sleep declines and the time spent in stage 1 sleep increases. Studies have revealed that the elderly may need less sleep than younger adults.
Is sleep deprivation detrimental?
Studies suggest it is not as detrimental as people think, on the other hand some evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may be a major social problem, undermining the efficiency at work and contributing to countless accidents.
Partial Sleep Deprivation or Sleep Restriction
When people make due with less sleep than normal over a period of time.
Reasons why people are partially sleep deprived
People try to squeeze more wakeful hours of their day due to work, family, household, and social responsibilities.
Effects of Partial Sleep Deprivation
1. Impairing Individual's Attention
2. Impairing Individual's Reaction Time
3. Impairing Individual's Motor Coordination
4. Impairing Individual's Decision Making
5. Negative Effect on the Endocrine System
6. Negative Effect on the Immune System
7. Blamed for a Large Number of Transportation Accidents (Falling Asleep at the Wheel)
Sleep Deprivation and Health
Studies suggest that this can have serious health consequences. It can affect physiological processes that undermine physical health such as hormonal changes, diabetes, obesity, and impaired immune system functioning.
2. Sleep Apnea
Refers to chronic problems in getting adequate sleep.
Involves frequent, reflexive gasping for air, that awakes a person and disrupts sleep.
Is a disease marked by sudden and irresistible onset of sleep during normal waking hours.
Occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep.
They are usually not taken very seriously.
Calvin Hall concluded what?
He analyzed the contents of over 10,000 dreams and concluded that most dreams are mundane. What people dream about is affected by what is happening in their lives.
Dreams and Western Society vs Non-Western Society
In Western society we typically distinguish between the "real" world and the "imaginary" world we are dreaming about. But in Non-Western cultures, dreams are viewed as an important source of information about oneself, the future, and the spiritual world.
Hypnotism is Greek for what?
Hypnotism was made popular by him, he was a Scottish physician. He thought that this could be used to produce anesthesia for surgeries.
Hypnotism was not used for anesthesia for what reason?
Just as hypnosis was catching on for general anesthesia, powerful and reliable chemical anesthetics were discovered and interest in hypnosis dwindled.
A systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility.
He created the most influential explanation of hypnosis as an altered state of awareness. He believed that hypnosis creates a dissociation in consciousness.
Is a splitting off of mental processes into two separate, simultaneous streams of awareness.
Refers to a family of practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control.
Mediation is associated with what?
Meditation has shown value in the treatment of what?
2. Anxiety Disorders
3. Chronic Pain
Recreational Drugs are termed what?
Are chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioral functioning.
How many categories of psychoactive drugs are there?
6 Psychoactive Drugs
Are drugs derived from the opium that are capable of relieving pain.
Sleep inducing drugs that tend to decrease central nervous system activation and behavioral activity; anticonvulsant.
Drugs that tend to increase central nervous system activation and behavioral activity. This treats hyperactivity and narcolepsy.
Diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most notably by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience.
Is the hemp plant from which marijuana, hash, and THC are derived. Treatment of glaucoma and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Encompasses a variety of beverages containing ethyl alcohol.
Refers to a progressive decrease in a person's responsiveness to a drug as a result of continued use.
Exists when a person must continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness.
Exists when a person must continue to take a drug to satisfy mental and emotional cravings.
Less than 4 CPS
Normal waking thought, alert, problem solving.
Deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation.
Records muscular activity and tension.
Records eye movements
Records the contractions of the heart
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD)
Is marked by potentially troublesome dream enactments during REM periods.
Desired Effects from Narcotics
3. Anxiety Reduction
4. Pain Reflief
Desired Effects from Sedatives
3. Anxiety Reduction
4. Reduced Inhibitions
Desired Effects from Stimulants
3. Increased Alertness
4. Increased Energy
5. Reduced Fatigue
Desired Effects from Hallucingens
1. Increased Sensory Awareness
3. Altered Perceptions
5. Insightful Experiences
Desired Effects from Cannabis
1. Mild Euphoria
3. Altered Perceptions
4. Enhanced Awareness
Desired Effects from Alcohol
1. Mild Euphoria
3. Anxiety Reduction
4. Reduced Inhibitions
Potential Short Term Side Effects from Narcotics
4. Impaired Coordination
5. Impaired Mental Functioning
Potential Short Term Side Effects from Sedatives
3. Severely Impaired Coordination
4. Impaired Mental Functioning
5. Emotional Swings
Potential Short Term Side Effects from Stimulants
1. Increased Blood Pressure
2. Increased Heart Rate
3. Increased Talkativeness
7. Reduced Appetite
8. Increased Sweating
9. Increased Urination
12. Increased Aggressiveness
Potential Short Term Side Effects from Hallucinogens
1. Dilated Pupils
3. Emotional Swings
5. Jumbled Thought Processes
6. Impaired Judgement
8. Panic Reaction
Potential Short Term Side Effects from Cannabis
1. Elevated Heart Rate
2. Bloodshot Eyes
3. Dry Mouth
4. Reduced Short-Term Memory
5. Sluggish Motor Coordination
6. Sluggish Mental Functioning
Potential Short Term Side Effects from Alcohol
1. Severely Impaired Coordination
2. Impaired Mental Functioning
3. Increased Urination
4. Emotional Swings
Health Risks for Narcotics
1. Infectious Diseases
3. Immune Suppression
Health Risks for Sedatives
Health Risks for Stimulants
1. Sleep Problems
3. Nasal Damage
5. Respiratory Disease
7. Liver Disease
8. Heart Attack
Health Risks for Hallucinogens
2 Acute Pain
Health Risks for Cannabis
2. Lung Cancer
3. Respiratory Disease
4. Pulmonary Disease
5. Increased Vulnerability to Psychosis
6. Cognitive Deficits
Health Risks for Alcohol
2. Liver Disease
4. Brain Damage
5. Neurological Disorders
6. Heart Disease
11. Birth Deficits
Risk of Physical Dependence for Narcotics
Risk of Physical Dependence for Sedatives
Risk of Physical Dependence for Stimulants
Risk of Physical Dependence for Hallucinogens
Risk of Physical Dependence for Cannabis
Risk of Physical Dependence for Alcohol
Risk of Psychological Dependence for Narcotics
Risk of Psychological Dependence for Sedatives
Risk of Psychological Dependence for Stimulants
Risk of Psychological Dependence for Hallucinogens
Risk of Psychological Dependence for Cannabis
Low to Moderate
Risk of Psychological Dependence for Alcohol
Speed of Tolerance Increase in Narcotics
Speed of Tolerance Increase in Sedatives
Speed of Tolerance Increase in Stimulants
Speed of Tolerance Increase in Hallucinogens
Speed of Tolerance Increase in Cannabis
Speed of Tolerance Increase in Alcohol
Consists of the plot of a dream and at a surface level.
Refers to the hidden or disguised meaning of the events in the plot.
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