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44 terms

ecology test 2

STUDY
PLAY
energy role statement
each of the organisms in an ecosystem fills the energy role of producer, consumer, or decomposer
energy roles
producers, consumers, decomposers
producer
an organism that can make its own food
consumer
an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
types of consumers
herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores
decomposers
break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem
the way producers, consumers and decomposers are shown
the movement of energy through an ecosystem can be shown in diagrams called food chains and food webs
food chain
a series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy
food webs
consists of the many overlapping food chains in an ecosystem
energy pyramid
shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
energy levels in the energy pyramid
the most energy is available at the producer level of the pyramid. As you move up the pyramid, each level has less energy available than the level below
water cycle
continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere
the water cycle process
the process of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
evaporation
the process by which molecules of liquid water absorb energy and change to a gas
condensation
the process by which a gas changes to a liquid
precipitation
heavy forms of water dropping back into earth
forms of precipitation
rain, show, sleet, or hail
how the carbon and oxygen cycle is similar
in ecosystems, the processes by which carbon and oxygen are recycled are linked. Producers, consumers, and decomposers play roles in recycling carbon and oxygen
nitrogen cycle
in the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen moves from the air to the soil, into living things, and back into the air
nitrogen fixation
the process of changing free nitrogen into a usable form of nitrogen
biogeography
the study of where organisms live
how continental drift affects things
one factor that has affected how species are distributed is the motion of Earth's continents
continental drift
as plates move, the continents move with them
dispersal
the movement of organisms from one place to another
how organisms can be dispersed
dispersal can be caused by wind, water, or living things, including humans
physical barriers, competition and climate
three factors that limit dispersal
biome
a group of land ecosystems with similar climates and organisms
six major biomes
the six major biomes that most ecologists study are the rain forest, desert, grassland, deciduous forest, boreal forest, and tundra
types of rain forest biomes
temperate rain forests and tropical rain forests
desert
an area that receives less than 25 centimeters of rain per year
canopy
the tall trees that form a leafy roof
understory
below the canopy, a second layer of shorter trees and vines form an _________?
grassland
an area that is populated mostly by grasses and other non-woody plants
savanna
receives as much as 120 centimeters of rain
deciduous trees
trees that shed their leaves and grow new ones each year
coniferous trees
trees that produce their seeds in cones and have leaves shaped like needles
tundra
and extremely cold and dry biome
permafrost
frozen soil
types of water ecosystems
your travels will take you to two types of aquatic, or water based ecosystems: freshwater ecosystems and marine (or saltwater) ecosystems
freshwater ecosystems
streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes
marine ecosystems
intertidal zone, neritic zone, and the open ocean
estuary
is found where the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean
intertidal zone
between the highest high-tide line and the lowest low-tide line
neritic zone
below the low-tide line is a regions of shallow water