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Psych: Ch 14 Stress
Terms in this set (54)
A variety of unpleasant feeling states.
Process where by an individual perceives and responds to stressors.
_____ defined stress as the response of the body to any demand, whether it is caused by, or results in pleasant or unpleasant conditions.
Selye's def of stress is ______-based in that it conceptualizes stress in terms of the______
Body's physiological reaction to any demand.
demanding or threatening events
2 Kinds of Appraisals of a stressor
Judgement about the degree of potential harm or threat to well-being that a stressor might entail.
Is stressor a challange or threat?
Ex. Getting a promotion and worrying about excessive work load
Triggered by perception of threat
Judgement of the options available to cope with a stressor, as well as perceptions of how effective such options will be.
Potential options and how effective?
Good stress associated w/ positive feelings, optimal health, and performance.
A moderate amt of stress can be _____ in challenging situations.
Moderate stress can enhance...
Immediate and delayed recall of educational material
Performance levels will inc with stress until stress levels reach ______. After that _____ occurs and performance levels will drop.
Nearly half of US adults indicate that their stress has inc'd over____
devoted to understanding the importance of psychological influences on health, illness, and how people respond when they become ill.
______ was the first to identify the body's physiological reactions to stress, (ie fight-or-flight response)
Occurs when a person experiences very strong emotions—especially those associated with a perceived threat.
Body is rapidly aroused by activation of both the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system
This arousal helps prepare the person to either fight or flee from a perceived threat.
Symptoms of Fight-or-flight response
Heart rate inc's
Muscles tense and may tremble
General Adaptation syndrome
Selye's 3-stage model of the body's physiological reactions to stress and the process of stress adaptation: alarm reaction
stage of resistance
stage of exhaustion
an initial jolt, subsequent readjustment, and a later depletion of all physical resources
-1st stage of the general adaptation syndrome
-Immediate physiological reaction to a threatening situation or some other emergency; analogous to the fight-or-flight response
Stage of Resistance
-2nd stage of the general adaptation syndrome
-body adapts to a stressor for a period of time
Stage of Exhaustion
-3rd stage of the general adaptation syndrom
-the body's ability to resist stress becomes depleted; illness, disease, and even death may occur
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
set of structures found in both the limbic system (hypothalamus) and the endocrine system (pituitary gland and adrenal glands) that regulate many of the body's physiological reactions to stress through the release of hormones
Stress hormone released by adrenal glands that helps provide a boost of energy when stressor is first encountered.
Prepares us to fight or run away
Order of organs activated by HPA
hypothalamus->pituitary gland-> adrenal glands
In short bursts, cortisol can have _____ effects on immune system.
Extended release can result in harmful effects
-Situations in which a person is exposed to actual or threatened death or serious injury.
-post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a chronic stress reaction characterized by experiences and behaviors that may include intrusive and painful memories of the stressor event, jumpiness, persistent negative emotional states, detachment from others, angry outbursts, and avoidance of reminders of the event
____ and _____ wanted to examine the link between life stresors and physical illness, based on the hypothesis that life events requiring significant changes in a person's normal life routines are stressful, whether these events are desirable or undesirable.
Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe
Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
-Designed to measure stress; consists of 43 potentially stressful events, each of which has a numerical value quantifying how much readjustment is associated with the event
Minor irritations and annoyances that are part of our everyday lives and are capable of producing stress
general sense of emotional exhaustion and cynicism in relation to one's job;
3 Dimensions of Job Burnout
-Sense of diminished personal accomplishment
work situation involving the combination of excessive job demands and workload with little decision making latitude or job control
Physical disorders or diseases whose symptoms are brought about or worsened by stress and emotional factors
Types of Psychophysiological Disorders
Dec'd effectiveness of the immune system
studies how psychological factors such as stress influence the immune system and immune functioning
Stress hormones released during (HPA) axis activation can adversely impact immune function by _______ the production of ______./
tendency to experience distressed emotional states involving anger, contempt, disgust, guilt, fear, and nervousness
psychological and behavior pattern exhibited by individuals who tend to be extremely competitive, impatient, rushed, and hostile toward others
psychological and behavior pattern exhibited by a person who is relaxed and laid back
Mental and behavioral efforts used to deal with problems relating to stress, including its presumed cause and the unpleasant feelings and emotions it produces.
Proactive in trying to alleviate the source of the stress.
Involve reappraisal, whereby the stressor is construed differently (and somewhat self-deceptively) without changing its objective level of threat.
treating the symptoms rather than the actual cause
beliefs about our personal capacity to exert influence over and shape outcomes, and it has major implications for our health and happiness
Soothing and often beneficial support of others;
can take different forms, such as advice, guidance, encouragement, acceptance, emotional comfort, and tangible assistance
Relaxation Response Technique
Stress reduction technique combining elements of relaxation and meditation
stress-reduction technique using electronic equipment to measure a person's involuntary (neuromuscular and autonomic) activity and provide feedback to help the person gain a level of voluntary control over these processes
An enduring state of mind consisting of joy, contentment, and other positive emotions, plus the sense that one's life has meaning and value
Components of Happiness
-enjoying daily pleasures
-using skills for enrichment
-contributing to the greater good
Seligman helped establish the field of ______
Scientific area of study seeking to identify and promote those qualities that lead to happy, fulfilled, and contented lives
state or a trait that involves pleasurable engagement with the environment, the dimensions of which include happiness, joy, enthusiasm, alertness, and excitement
tendency toward a positive outlook and positive expectations
state involving intense engagement in an activity; usually is experienced when participating in creative, work, and leisure endeavors
________ stated that the intensity and chronicity of human stress is governed largely by perceived control over the demands of one's life
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