Aviation Safety Final Review
Terms in this set (111)
FAA stands for?
Federal Aviation Administration
FAAs primary responsibility?
Safety of civil aviation
Major functions of the FAA
Regulate and promote civil aviation safety
encourage developing civil aeronautics
Develop and operate ATC system
Regulate U.S. commercial space transportation
Who was the first to establish safety regulations?
U.S Air Mail Service / Post Office
What was the function of the Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA)?
Responsible for safety programs and economic regulations.
Established by the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938
What was the function of the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB)?
CAB had responsibility for regulatory and investigatory matters. Established by the Reorganization Act of 1939
What event created the FAA (Agency)?
DC-7 and Super constellation mid-air collision over the Grand Canyon in 1956
After the FAA (Agency) was established who was in charge of economic and accident investigations?
Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB)
Commuter Rule applies to whom?
Aircraft with 10 or more seats
Before the ____ no single integrated agency existed to address the problems with air, land, and water pollution
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
What Act gave the EPA the authority to control hazardous waste from "cradle to grave?"
Resource and conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) did what?
Gave federal authority broad powers in responding to potential hazardous chemicals, dealt with closing abandoned hazardous waste sites, also gave the EPA power to seek out responsible parties
Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act (SARA) did what?
Inacted greater community involvement
Before OSHA was established who had the responsibility for occupational safety and health?
What is the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)?
It is an independent agency that determines the probable cause of transportation accidents and promotes transportation safety through the recommendation process
What is the NTSB's mission?
is to determine the "probable cause" of transportation accidents and to formulate safety recommendations to improve transportation safety.
Does the NTSB investigate general aviation accidents?
The major share of the NTSB's air safety recommendations are directed towards who?
The NTSB is composed of how many members?
Who appoints these members and for how long?
The President appoints these members which are confirmed by the Senate for a term of 5 years, two are designated chair and vice chair for a period of 2 years.
What does the office of the managing director do?
implements the NTSB's programs by coordinating the day-to-day operations of the staff
Which unit of the NTSB deals primarily with the individual?
Office of Administrative Law Judges
Which unit of the NTSB is primarily responsible for investigating aviation accidents and incidents and proposing probable causes for the NTSB approval?
Office of Aviation Safety
When is the NTSB's go-team dispatched?
When a major commercial aviation accident occurs
Who leads the go-team?
the Investigator-in-charge (IIC)
Who participates as "parties" in an investigation?
Manufacturers, operators, and by law the FAA
Who are NOT permitted to participate in the "party" system?
Members of the news media, lawyers, insurance personnel, Claimants or victims or family members
24 hour alert go-team is made up of what kind of personnel?
air traffic control specialist, a meteorologist, human-performance expert, witness interrogator, engine specialist,
The go-team is normally on its way in how long?
Where is the NTSB laboratory?
What percentage of the safety recommendations from the NTSB from the FAA are acted on favorably?
What part of the accident investigation are safety recommendations made?
What is included in the final accident report?
list of factual findings concerning the accident, analysis of those findings, recommendations to prevent repetition an probable cause
Where can someone find information on civil aviation accidents and selected incidents that occur within the shores of the US, within its territories and in international waters>
NTSB accident database
What is an accident?
Where a occupant or nonoccupant suffers a fatal or serious injury or the aircraft receives substantial damage
What is an incident?
defined loosely as a "near accident"
What should accident investigation be directed towards?
effective preventive action
Types of reporting systems?
Mandatory and Voluntary
The accident and its investigation remain the most conspicuous source of insights and information that leads to?
Generally which reporting system is more successful?
Who compiles and analyzes data on the nation's transportation system?
The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS)
Two invaluable sources of safety insights and information on the operation of their aircraft?
Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders
What are safety factors? (also referred to as causal factors)
are events that are associated with or influence fatality rates
What is a safety indicator?
A measurable safety factor
Information that indicates the amount of opportunity for an event to occur?
The probability of an aircraft crashing is higher during this phase than any other?
Take off and landing
T/F Accident count is a more valid indicator than accident rate?
What is the definitive source of safety data?
Manufacturers are needed for accident investigation? T/F
What does Boeing's Statistical Summary say about hull loss?
Most occur during the combined final approach and landing phases and caused by human error
What is the single largest challenge for safety?
Safety trend of the airline over the past two decades?
Purpose of accident investigation?
uncover pervasive, unrecognized causal factors of accidents
What is the main goal of accident investigators?
establish the probable causes of accidents and to recommend control measures
goal of non-accident data analysis and modeling?
conduct a preemptive strike on the very first accident to prevent it from occurring by addressing the root cause of the accident
What are primary safety factors?
are those most closely correlated with accidents and include
Personnel (Pilots, controllers, etc.) capabilities
Air traffic environment
Responsibility for commercial aviation safety lies with who?
FAA & Airlines
What are the factors of the 5-M model?
Man,mission,medium(environment)management, and machine
Responsibility for safety and thus accident prevention rest ultimately with?
What are errors in Reason's accident model referred to as?
What is the overall process of Risk Management?
identifying, evaluating, controlling or reducing, and accepting risk.
What is the overall process of Risk assessment?
It is the process of evaluating risk
What is attributed to at least two-thirds of commercial aviation accidents?
mismanagement by the flight crew is a causal factor of what percentage is all major airline accidents?
What is human factors?
A science that attempts to optimize the interaction between people, machines, methods and procedures that interface with one another within an environment
Human performance is a function of?
Speed and accuracy
T/F Accidents rarely involve a deliberate disregard of procedures
What is situational awareness?
Your perception of what has happened, what might happen and what is happening
T/F Error is inevitable?
Two basic strategies for controlling human error?
Engineering and administrative
automation is what?
assigning physical or mental tasks previously performed by the crew to machines or computers
Automation minimizes or prevents human errors how?
By removing the human from the control loop
Why is between-fleet standardization desirable?
Reduces training and maintenance costs
Generally the problem is not that the error is irreversible but why?
The recovery process can be difficult, time-consuming, and possibly error-inducing.
What is the weakest link in the modern aviation system?
Should unintentional errors be punished?
No, better corrective measures should be used such as training and motivatin
What has been the long recognized leading source of human error?
Mis-communication between aircrews and ATC controllers
How does the FAA enforce discipline over flightcrews?
levying of fines and/or suspension of licenses
FAA's mission for ATC?
promote the safe, orderly and expeditious flow of aircraft through the nation's airspace
what makes of the ATC environment?
People, Equipment, infrastructure.
T/F Basic principles and operation of the ATC system has changed little since the 1970s?
What are the two basic conditions for flying activities?
IFR and VFR
Air Traffic Controllers operate primarily from what three facilities?
Airport Traffic control towers (ATCTs)
Terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON)
Air route control centers (ARTCC)
What is the greatest aviation achievement since radios were introduced 50 years ago?
Wide-area augmentation system (WAAS) provides what?
enroute/terminal navigation and (CAT) I precision approaches
Precision approaches are categorized in terms of what?
Ceilings (decision heights) and minimum visability
What instrument approach is based on a lateral path and no vertical guide path?
What kind of instrument approach is based on lateral path and vertical guidance
Advantage of Satellite-based navgation
enables significant operational and safety benefits
Satellite-based navigation will support what kind of routes?
ADS-B uses what?
SATNAV and datalink
Flight planning will be replaced by what in the NAS?
What is STARS?
all-digital integrated computer system with modern color displays and distributed processing networks
System used to collect and share ground movement data?
Surface movement advisor (SMA)
Ways to resolve congestion at the busiest US airports?
Modern technology and additional runways
The FAA is dependent on who for funds?
Key components of the en route and oceanic modernization?
Greatest advantage of jet engines over piston engine aircraft is?
Increased efficiency at high speeds
What aircraft brought in the jet transport era?
Primary reason for pod mounted engine?
What atmosphere phenomenon does not occur at high speeds and altitude?
B47 qualities ere affected by what?
What are the FDR & CVR used for?
What is the difference in safety and security?
Safety refers protection against unintentional acts (measures taken against an accident)
Security refers to protection against intentional acts (threats and attacks motivated by hostility or malice.)
What has been the trend of attacks?
Number of attacks has decreased with the severity of attacks increasing
T/F Probability of detection P'd' and probability of false alarm P'fa' should both be maximized?
Most comprehensive, far-reaching legislative initiative designed to improve all aspects of aviation security is what ACT?
Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990
What Act established the TSA?
Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001
What act required the 100% screening of all passengers?
Anti-Hijacking or Air Transportation security Act of 1974
What act standardized screening across domestic airlines?
Air Carrier Standard security program (ACSSP)
What required the FAA to ensure the same security measures used by U.S. carriers into and from the US would be implemented by non U.S. air carriers on these routes
Anti-terrorism Act of 1996