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The variable patterns of tourist visitation throughout the year at a destination. Most destinations have three seasons: a peak season, a shoulder season (which occurs just before and just after the peak), and an off-season.

Destination Image

he impression that people (especially potential tourists) hold of a certain location.


The interaction between two components, such as tourism and sport


Using strategies to optimize the benefits or outcomes associated with an event.

convention and visitors bureau (CVB)

—A community agency funded by the "bed tax," the local taxes paid for stays in commercial lodging facilities such as hotels. A CVB promotes tourism in a community and acts as a centralized source of information about events, accommodations, and other visitorrelated information.

Sports Commission

Local or state agency responsible for attracting and organizing sport events to help communities capitalize on the potential benefits of sport tourism.

Psychic Income

—The pride that people have in their community, generated by hosting a sport event

Time Switchers

Visitors who had been planning to visit the destination and then switched their visit to coincide with the event; their spending cannot be attributed to the event


People who happened to be visiting the destination and chose to attend the event instead of doing something else. Their attendance at the event was not their prime reason for visiting the destination

Displacement Effect

—The process whereby potential tourists are discouraged from visiting a destination because of perceptions of such hassles as crowding and construction or fear of terrorism.

Sport Communication

A process by which people in sport, in a sport setting, or through a sport endeavor share symbols as they create meaning through interaction.


Varied results of communication in regard to its effect on audience members and society in general.

strategic sport communication model

—A model depicting the dynamics of communication and the various settings in which communication occurs in sport.

Print Communication

Communication through printed publications, including sport sections in newspapers, sport magazines, and sport books.

Electronic Communication

Communication by electronic media, including sports broadcasting on television (e.g., broadcast, cable, satellite), sports radio, sport film (e.g., movies), and sport photography.

New Media

Communication through nontraditional media platforms, most of them Internet based and ranging from traditional Web sites to sport Web logs (i.e., blogs) to e-commerce systems.

Sport Public Relations

A managerial communication-based function designed to identify a sport organization's key publics, evaluate its relationships with those publics, and foster desirable relationships between the sport organization and those key publics.

One Way Model of Public Relations

A communication model focusing exclusively on the flow of information from the sport organization to its publics.

Two Way Model of Public Relations

A communication model focusing on communication give and take between a sport organization and its key publics.

Community Relations

Often focuses on the promotion of charitable initiatives affiliated with the sport organization and the development of opportunities for face-to-face contact with sport organization stakeholders.


he basic economic problem facing all institutions, including sport. A sport product is considered scarce if people want more of the product than is freely available for consumption.

Economic Interaction

he exchange of one product of value for another product of value.


The relationship between the price of a product and the amount of the product that consumers are willing to buy.

Law of Demand

Consumers will demand less of a product as its price increases and more of a product as its price falls.


The relationship between the price of a product and the amount of the product that suppliers are willing to produce and sell.

Law of Supply

—Suppliers will increase production as the price of the product increases and decrease production as the price falls. market equili

Market Equilibrium

The price at which the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied.

Market Surplus

price at which the quantity supplied of a product is greater than the quantity demanded

Market Shortage

A price at which the quantity demanded of a product is greater than the quantity supplied.


Knowledge based on experimental method and observation versus theory or supposition

Role Learning

—A social process by which children learn various roles, such as neighbor, friend, student, sibling, daughter, or son, and the characteristics associated with them.


An ideology and a behavior that promote privilege for dominant groups (e.g, heterosexuals are the norm and are therefore better than homosexuals).

Race Logic

An attributional pattern of athletic success in which Black athletes' successes are attributed to natural athletic abilities and genetic advantage and White athletes' achievements are attributed to discipline, intelligence, and hard work


A disproportionate allocation of athletes to central (e.g., "thinking positions") and noncentral positions as a function of their race or ethnicity.

Ambush Marketing

A tactic whereby a company attempts to undermine the sponsorship activities of a rival that owns the legal rights to sponsor an event; intended to create the sense that the ambusher is officially associated with the event.

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