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Chapter 8: The Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality
Terms in this set (56)
a person's internally based characteristic ways of acting and thinking.
tend to be used more by clinical psychologists, supposed to tap into what's going on in your sub-conscious
What are some examples of projective tests?
Rorschach's Inkblot Test and Thematic Apperception Test (look at this picture and tell me a story)
Personality trait inventories
more reliable, less up for interpretation, more standardized, self-report objective tests
What are 3 Personality trait inventories?
NEO-PI (the big five), Type A vs. Type B. and MMPI (used for psychological disorders and diagnosing personaltiy disorders)
What are the Big Five traits?
OCEAN: Openness, Conscientousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
What are the pros and cons of the trait view of personality
It's good at "capturing" a person's personality, but is not good at explaining HOW personality develops
What are 3 of the main Behaviorists' views on the Role of Experience/Learning in regards to personality?
Traits are just a learned pattern of behaviors. Behavior depends on the situation and consequences. Different cultures/environments reinforce different traits.
What is the role of Biology in Personality?
genetic predispositions, basic inborn temperament. Experience (nurture) still plays important role.
Social Cognitive approach to personality
agrees that learning/experience matters but stresses observational learning & cognition.
What concept did Bandura and the Bobo Dolls stress?
What concept did Rotter create?
locus of control- either internal or external. external locus contributes to learned helplessness, internal locus contributes to self-efficacy.
a judgment of one's effectiveness in dealing with particular situations
external locus of control
the perception that chance or external forces beyond a person's control determine one's fate
internal locus of control
The perception that we control our own fate
a sense of hopelessness in which a person thinks that he is unable to prevent aversive events
the process by which we explain our own behavior and that of others
the tendency to make attributions so that one can perceive oneself favorably.
What are Freud's 3 levels of Awareness?
the conscious mind (present awareness), the preconscious mind (outside awareness but accessible) and the unconscious mind (not accessible)
What did Freud ultimately believe?
That unconscious desires and needs are the basic motivating force for behavior.
the part of the personality that a person is born with, where the biological instinctual drives reside, and that is located totally in the unconscious mind. operates on the pleasure principle.
the principle of seeking immediate gratification for instinctual drives without concern for the consequences
the part of the personality that starts developing in the first year or so of life in order to find realistic outlets for the id's instinctual drives. operates on the reality principle. mediates disputes between superego and the id. Uses defense mechanisms to counteract anxiety caused by the id.
the principle of finding gratification for instinctual drives within the constraints of reality (norms of society).
The part of the personality that represents one's conscience and idealized standards of behavior. operates on the morality principle.
a process used by the ego to distort reality and protect a person from anxiety.
unknowingly place an unpleasant memory or thought in the unconscious (ex. not remembering a traumatic incident in which you witnessed a crime)
reverting back to immature behavior from an earlier stage of development (ex. throwing temper tantrums as an adult.)
redirecting unacceptable feelings from the original source to a safer substitute target (ex. taking your anger toward your boss out on your parents or siblings by yelling at them)
creating false excuses for one's unacceptable feelings, thoughts or behavior.
replacing socially unacceptable impulses with socially unacceptable behavior (ex. coping skills)
What did Freud focus on?
early childhood experience
What are Freud's 5 Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development?
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
the area of the body where the id' s pleasure-seeking energies are focused during a particular stage of psychosexual development.
some of the id's pleasure-seeking energies remaining stuck in a psychosexual stage due to excessive or insufficient gratification of instinctual needs.
birth to 18 months. First Stage. erogenous zones are the mouth, lips, and tongue. Child derives pleasure from oral activities such as sucking, biting, and chewing.
18 months to 3 years. Second Stage. erogenous zone is the anus. Child derives pleasure from stimulation of the anal region through having and withholding bowel movements.
3 to 6 years. Third stage. Erogenous zone is located at the genitals, and the child derives pleasure from genital stimulation.
A phallic stage conflict for a boy in which the boy becomes sexually attracted to his mother and fears his father will find out and castrate him.
The process by which children adopt the characteristics of the same-sex parent and learn their gender role and sense of morality.
6 years to puberty. Fourth Stage. No Erogenous zone. Sexual feelings are repressed, and focus is on cognitive and social development.
puberty through adulthood. Fifth stage. Erogenous zone is the genitals, child develops sexual relationships, moving toward intimate adult relationships.
phallic stage conflict for a girl in which a girl is supposedly attracted to her father due to penis envy.
List 4 of Freud's Contributions to Personality
unconscious processing does impact us, importance of early childhood, study of sexuality in children, notion of defense mechanisms (though we often use them consciously to maintain self-esteem)
hierarchy of needs
the motivational component in Maslow's theory of personality, in which our innate needs that motivate our behavior are hierarchically arranged in a pyramid shape.
What are the 5 needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs from bottom to top?
Physiological, safety, belongingness and love, esteem, self-actualization
Which needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of Need are the strongest?
need to satisfy hunger and thirst
need to feel safe, secure and stable
Belongingness and Love needs
need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted.
need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence
need to live up to one's fullest unique potential.
What was Carl Roger's Self Theory?
Self-actualization is the basic motivating force. unconditional positive regard leads to self-actualization; conditions of worth/ conditional positive regard leads to anxiety, frustration and a distorted self-concept.
conditions of worth
the behaviors and attitudes for which other people, starting with our parents, will give us positive regard.
unconditional positive regard
unconditional acceptance and approval of a person by others.
What are the 3 main points of the Humanistic Approach?
Focus on striving for personal growth, lacks research basis, and applies more to counseling and therapy.
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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