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AP Psychology - Chapter 10: Thinking and Language
Terms in this set (26)
a mental groupong of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
a mental image or best example of a category.
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; impediment to problem solving
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; impediment to problem solving
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps of vividness), we presume such events are common
the tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning, prefixes, suffixes
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language, also the study of meaning
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a give language
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
starts at age 1, child speaks mostly single words
starts at age 2, speaks two words, telegraphic stage
a stage in which the child speaks like a telegram
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
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