Upgrade to remove ads
SAFe SPC 4.0 Study questions
Terms in this set (371)
What are the 3 SAFe Benefits?
1. Synchronizes alignment
2. Promotes collaboration
3. Coordinates delivery for large numbers of teams
4 SAFe Core Values
1. Built In Quality
2. Program Execution
How is an Agile portfolio organized?
It is organized around the flow of value
In an Agile Portfolio, what impact does Lean Agile budgeting have?
It empowers decision makers
In an Agile Portfolio, what benefit do kanban boards have?
They provide visibility and WIP limits to Portfolio
In an Agile Portfolio, why and How does SAFe use objective metrics?
To support governance and improvement
In an Agile Portfolio, delivery of value is rolled up to what kind of organizing structure?
What are the 3 steps in the Implementing SAFe training process?
"1. Train change agents
2. Train executives, managers & leaders
3. Train teams and launch train"
What are the business results of scaled agile?
"1. Happier, more motivated employees
2. 30-70% faster time to market
3. 20-50% increase in productivity
4. 50%+ defect reduction"
List the 8 big mistakes that cause scaled agile to fail:
Obstacles block vision
Lack of Vision
Missing short term wins
Neglecting corporate culture to anchor changes
Declaring victory too soon
"1. Allowing too much complacency
2. Failure to create sufficiently powerful guiding coalition
3. Understanding the power of vision.
4. Under-communicating the power of vision by 10-100x
5.Permitting obstacles to block the new vision
6. Failure to create short term wins
7. Declaring victory too soon
8. Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culture"
What are the 4 pillars of the House of Lean
"1. Respect for People and Culture
4. Relentless Improvement"
What is the base of the House of Lean?
What is the roof of the House of Lean?
Lean purpose is to achieve the sustainably shortest lead time with:
"1. Best Quality and value to people and society
2. High Morale, safety and customer delight"
To change the culture, what do you need to change first?
What is the last change to take place?
On what value do we build long-term partnerships?
Why do we need to respect people?
People do all the work
Who is your customer?
Whomever consumes your work
In what way do we optimize value throughput?
So it is continuous and sustainable
To optimize value throughput, what kind of delays do we need to eliminate?
start, stop, start
Why is it critical to build quality in?
Flow depends on quality
IN order to verify that our product actually works, what do we need to do as often as possible?
How do we treat variability?
We understand, exploit and manage variability
Why is fast feedback critical?
It provides informed decision making
Considering innovation, what is the difference between producers and customers?
Producers innovate; customer validate
What must be given to producers in order to innovate?
Time and space for creativity
What is Innovation Accounting?
"Everything in the train is capitalizable once it is released or visible, at which point everything afterward is expenses.
By releasing code frequently it becomes an asset that provides for tax depreciation."
Why does innovation say we should "pivot without mercy or guilt"?
If there are changes and the market changes or other discoveries, it is best to move in the right direction without considering money spent.
Why do we need to foster a sense of urgency or danger?
By avoiding complacency, and by remaining constantly aware of potential failure, we drive the urge to continuously improve.
What guidance should we take when looking at optimization?
Optimize the whole
When we review the work we have done, what do we do?
Consider the facts carefully, then act quickly
Why does SAFe encourage the use of lean tools to identify root causes?
To be sure we identify the real causes of issues, prioritize them, and address them.
Why do we institutionalize reflection at key milestones?
To build improvement into the program cadence.
Why do we need to train leadership in SAFe?
So they can lead the way
Why do we need to continuously study many sources of information?
To model leadership and encourage life-long learning for our teams
What is the most effective impact leaders can have on their people?
Develop people (help them grow)
Why do we encourage the decentralization of decision making?
To free the creative power of the teams to solve their own problems
Why do good leaders inspire and align with mission and then minimize constraints?
Once the team understands the mission and "buys in", the teams' intrinsic motivations can be released to solve their own problems.
Instead of motivating with financial rewards, what should leaders do?
Unlock the intrinsic motivation of knowledge workers
Per Agile Manifesto: What is our highest priority?
Satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software
Per Agile Manifesto: how do we consider changing requirements?
Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.
Per Agile Manifesto: Why do we deliver working software frequently (couple of weeks to couple of months)?
To provide for frequent inspection and adaptation, learning, and early correction.
Per Agile Manifesto: Why do business people and developers work together daily?
Agile encourages face-to-face conversations, frequent discussions, to improve quality
Per Agile Manifesto: Around what do we build projects?
Motivated individuals who have the environment and support they need and the trust to get the work done.
Per Agile Manifesto: What is the best way to communicate?
Face to face conversation
Per Agile Manifesto: What is the primary measure of progress?
Per Agile Manifesto: How do we consider changing requirements?
We welcome changing requirements even late in development. We harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.
Per Agile Manifesto: How do agile processes impact team level of effort?
Agile processes promote sustainable development so they can maintain a constant pace indefinitely.
Per Agile Manifesto: How do agile processes impact quality?
It encourages constant attention to technical excellence and good design.
Per Agile Manifesto: Why does agile encourage simplicity?
The art of maximizing the amount of work not done is essential.
Per Agile Manifesto: What are the benefits of self-organizing teams?
The best architectures, requirements and designs emerge from self-organizing teams
Per Agile Manifesto: Why do we hold retrospectives?
Teams reflect at regular intervals on how to become more effective and then adjusts accordingly.
What are the 9 SAFe Principles
"1. Economic View
2. Apply systems thinking
3. Assume variability/preserve options
4. Build incrementally w fast integ learning cycles
5. Base milestones on Objective Evaluation of working systems
6. Visualize and limit WIP, reduce batch, manage queue
7. Apply cadence
8. Unlock intrinsic motivation of knowledge workers
9. Decentralize decision makers"
What is the difference between waterfall and incremental delivery
Increases value delivery faster through iterations and allows for faster feedback
Why should we take an economic framework for decision making?
1.Empower local decision-making
2.Do not consider money already spent
3.Sequence jobs for maximum benefit
4.If you only quantify one thing, quantify the cost of delay
What is the greatest limiter on a systems ability to evolve?
A system can evolve no faster than is slowest integration point
To fully understand a value stream, what do we need to consider?
Understanding the full value stream also encompasses considering the definition, analysis, validation and delivery.
When applying systems thinking, what type of based approach should you take?
Set based approach (this gives you multiple design options and learning points)
What does PDCA stand for and what principle does this land under
Plan, Do, Check, Apply - This is under the #4 principle of Build Incrementally with fast integrated learning cycles.
What are the 3 problems mentioned for phase gate milestones?
1. encourages false positives feasibility
2. assumes a "point" solution exist
3. and creates huge batches and long queues
What problem arises from the phase-gate milestone approach to requirements and design?
Requirements and designs are fixed too early making adjustments costly and late
When should you apply and look at objective milestones?
PI demos are orchestrated to deliver objective progress, product, and process metrics.
What does BVIR stand for?
Big Visible Information Radiator. This term may apply to Kanban boards as an example.
What are the benefits of reducing the batch size?
"1. Large batch size increases variability
2. High utilization increases variability
3 Severe project slippage is the most likely result
4 Most important batch is the transport (handoff) batch
5 Proximity (co-location) enables small batch size
6 Good Infrastructure enables small batches "
How do you find the optimum batch size?
by reducing transaction costs - this also reduces total costs and shifts optimum batch size lower
What 5 negative impacts do long queues cause?
1. longer cycle time
2. increased risk
3. more variability
4. lower quality
5. less motivation
What is the equation for Little's Law?
Average wait time = average queue length/ average processing queue
What does Cadence-based planning allow for
limits variability to a single interval
What 3 types of decisions should be decentralized?
time critical decisions
decisions that require local information
When deciding when to centralize or de-centralize decisions, we centralize those that...
are infrequent, long lasting, and have significant economies of scale
Describe the role of the Release Train Engineer (RTE)
Steers the train. Servant leaders who Facilitate program level process and execution, escalate impediments, manage risk, and drive program level continuous improvement.
Describe the role of the Value Stream Engineer (VSE)
Similar role to RTE but at the Value Stream Level, servant leaders who facilitate and guide work of all ARTs and suppliers. Generally have experience as program managers and should have deep knowledge on lean principles and facilitation.
19 Responsibilities of RTEs and VSE Role
1. Manage and optimize value flow
2. establish and communicate calendars
3. Facilitate PI Planning readiness
4. Facilitate PI Planning
5. Aggregate team objectives into PI objectives
6. Aggregate PI objectives into Value Stream objectives
7. Assist with feature progress tracking
8. Facilitate frequent synch meetings
9. Assist with economic decision-making by facilitating the feature and capability estimating and roll-up to PI and VS levels
10. Escalate and track impediments
11. Encourage collaboration within and between teams, and other roles such as architects etc.
12. Work with Prod Management to ensure alignment
13. Manage risks and dependencies
14. Understand and operate within ART budget
15. Provide input on resourcing
16. Attend system and solution demos
17. Drive continuous improvement
18. Encourage continuous integration at all levels.
19. Coach leaders at all levels.
RTEs and VSEs have greater authority than Scrum Masters, T or F?
False. They are also servant leaders, but utilize persuasion, facilitation and coaching skills to guide decision making.
Describe the role of the System and solution Architects
Have responsibility for the overall system architectural and engineering solution.
At what granularity do system and solution architects view the system?
They take a higher level view of the higher functional and non-functional system requirements. They analyze trade-offs, major components and sub-systems, define interfaces and collaborations between them.
How does architect/engineering align with the value stream and ARTs?
They communicate a common architectural and engineering vision of the solution under development
What are the 10 listed responsibilities of the architect?
"1. Participate in planning, definition and high level design of the solution
2. define sub-systems and interfaces
3. Work with stakeholders to determine the high-level solution intent, understand deployment and communicate interactions with solution intent
4. Establish critical non-functional requirements
5. Validate economic impact of design decisions within the economic framework
6. Participate in PI meetings, demos, and retrospectives
7. Define and support Enablers to evolve the architecture intent
8. Design the architectural runway
9. Help determine capacity for enablement
10. supervise and plan in Quality"
What 6 main architectural decisions are made in a centralized manner?
The larger-scale decisions, such as
1. primary system intent
2. sub-systems and interfaces
3. allocation of functions to those systems
4. selection of common platforms
5. definition of solution-level non-functional requirements, and
6. elimination of redundancy.
Why are the majority of the design decisions left to the teams instead of the architects?
To apply the concept of emergent design, balanced with alignment with intentional architecture coming from the architects.
What is PI Planning?
The seminal, cadence-based planning meeting for the ART.
What is the duration of the PI meeting?
1.5 to 2 days
What are the major portions of Day 1 of the PI Planning?
1. Business Context (1 hour)
2. Product/Solution Vision (1.5 hours)
3. Architecture Vision and Dev Practices (1 hour)
4. Team Breakouts (3 hours)
5. Draft Plan Review (1 hour)
6. Management Review (1 hour)
What are the major portions of Day 2 of the PI Planning?
1. Planning adjustments (1 hour)
2. Team Breakouts (2 hours)
3. Final Plan (1-2 hours)
4. Program Risks (1 hour)
5. PI Confidence Vote (00:15)
6. Plan rework if needed.
Afterward: Planning retrospective & moving forward.
What are the 8 listed benefits of the PI Planning?
1. Establish fast communication across teams, stakeholders.
2. Build the ART social network
3. Alignment development to business
4. Identify dependencies
5. Foster cross-team collaboration and planning
6. Provide just right amount of architecture
7. Match demand to capacity
8. Accelerate decision making
What are the 4 main Inputs for the PI Planning?
2. Product Roadmap
3. Top 10 Features
4. Other business content
What are the 3 main Outputs for PI Planning?
1. SMART PI objectives for each team, with business value and Program Objectives
2. Program board with new features, anticipated delivery dates, other milestones, and dependencies
3. Vote of confidence
What are the 3 main areas of readiness to prepare for a PI Planning?
1. Organizational Readiness
2. Content Readiness
3. Facility Readiness
What is organization readiness?
Strategic alignment and teams and trains set up
What is Content Readiness?
Management and development preparedness
What is facility readiness?
Having the physical space and communication methods prepared for the meeting
What does it mean for Risks to be ROAM?
What are Strategic Themes?
Itemized, specific business objectives that connect a SAFe business portfolio to the evolving Enterprise strategy. They provide business context for the decision making within the portfolio and influence investment decisions in Value Streams.
Who participates in developing strategic themes?
2. Enterprise Architects
3. Program Portfolio Management
4. and Portfolio Stakeholders
What are the inputs to Strategic Themes?
1. Business Mission
2. Financial Objectives and Constraints
3. Competitive environment
4. Portfolio context
What is the primary input into the Portfolio Vision?
What are the 3 main reasons we align the portfolio backlog to the Strategic Themes?
1. It impacts the identification, success criteria and prioritization of the Epics in the funnel.
2. To drive consideration and discussion in the lightweight business case
3. Impacts how epics are split and implemented
What are "trailing indicators"?
Success criteria that we may want to apply to Strategic Themes, but which may take a long time to record or achieve.
What is Innovation Accounting?
Innovation Accounting is a technique commonly employed by Lean enterprises. It is a thoughtful look at what early indicators are likely to produce the desired long term results, because many success criteria that would normally be used to measure success or failure in high level strategic themes are trailing indicators and take too long to measure.
What is the benefit of Strategic Theme success criteria?
They provide learning milestones that allow the portfolio to understand the solutions involved, validate business and technical hypotheses and pivot towards a better solution (if necessary)
What is the PPM, Program Portfolio Management?
The people who have the highest-level strategy and fiduciary decision-making responsibility in the framework.
What is the purpose of Strategy and Investment Funding?
The allocation and assurance of funding to the strategy.
What is the purpose of Program Management?
Drive, assist or support program execution.
What is the purpose of Governance?
To close the loop on funding and program execution, measures and reporting, and necessary compliance.
Is there always an official department for PPM in every enterprise?
What is the main responsibility of the PPM?
To participate in the establishment and communication of Strategic Themes, determine the relevant Value Streams and allocate budgets to them.
They also define and prioritize cross-cutting portfolio backlog epics and report to the business on investment spend and KPIs.
SAFe describes 7 Transformational Patterns.
What is the Lean Agile Approach for the traditional "Centralized Control"?
SAFe describes 7 Transformational Patterns.
What is the Lean Agile Approach for the traditional Project Overload?
Demand Management and continuous value flow
SAFe describes 7 Transformational Patterns.
What is the Lean Agile Approach for the traditional Detailed Project Plans?
Lightweight, epic-only business cases
SAFe describes 7 Transformational Patterns. What is the Lean Agile Approach for the traditional Centralized annual planning?
Decentralized rolling wave planning
SAFe describes 7 Transformational Patterns. What is the Lean Agile Approach for the traditional Work Breakdown Structure?
Agile Estimating and planning
SAFe describes 7 Transformational Patterns. What is the Lean Agile Approach for the traditional Project-based funding and control?
Lean-Agile budgeting and self managing Agile Release Trains
SAFe describes 7 Transformational Patterns.
What is the Lean Agile Approach for the traditional Waterfall milestones?
Objective, fact-based measures and milestones.
What is the purpose of strategy and investment funding?
To support implementation of the business strategy through programs that develop and maintain the company's value-added products and services.
How is Investment funding allocated in SAFe?
It is allocated to ongoing programs and new initiatives in accordance with business strategy and current strategic themes.
True or False? Each Value Stream has its own budget?
How often are Lean-Agile budgets updated for each Value Stream?
Why is demand management preferable?
Overloading any system decreases throughput. Otherwise, too much WIP will limit velocity and quality as individuals change from project to project.
Why does SAFe encourage the creation of Lightweight Epic Business Cases?
To replace the old Waterfall detailed project plans, and to provide visibility and economic justification for upcoming, cross-cutting work.
While the primary responsibility for program execution lies with the ARTS, Value Streams, and their RTEs and VSEs, the Program management also helps. How?
They can help develop, harvest and apply successful program execution patterns across the portfolio.
What replaces the traditional project and program chartering and management activities?
Value stream-based, self managing and self-organizing Agile Release Trains (ARTs), each of which provides continuous flow of value to its stakeholders.
What replaces centralized planning?
Decentralized rolling-wave planning using routine, cadence based PI Planning.
What are some Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that may be a part of governance?
Customer net promoter score
Innovation accounting, and others.
What are Qualitative Data?
Include Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis. Most importantly, the accumulated solution, market and business knowledge of the stakeholders.
Why must every portfolio execute within an approved operating budget?
The operating costs for solution development are a primary factor in overall economic success.
What can be the result of the inherent conflict with current (traditional) methods of budgeting and project cost accounting, and the Lean-Agile processes?
The move to Lean-Agile development, and all the potential business benefits, are compromised or made unachievable.
What is the benefit of the Lean-Agile Budgets promoted by SAFe?
Fiduciaries still have control of spend, while programs are empowered for rapid decision making and flexible value delivery.
In Traditional budgeting: Projects are the basic unit of work. In SAFe...
Value Streams are funded and value streams through them, guided by Strategic Goals and Epics.
In Traditional budgeting: People are brought to the work. In SAFe...
The teams remain part of their value streams, and work is brought to the teams.
In Traditional budgeting: Measure compliance to inherently uncertain work. In SAFe...
ARTs provide objective evidence of fitness to purpose and delivery of value, and approve Epic-Level initiatives.
Traditionally, the enterprise is organized into cost centers. Each cost center contributes to project spending. In what ways does this create complications?
1. It takes many individual budgets (1 per cost center) to create the project budget.
2. It drives teams to try to make detailed and precise decisions far too early in the cone of uncertainty.
3. Resource assignment is temporary, assuming resources will "return to their cost center" after the project.
4. It drives managers to make sure everyone is fully allocated, which is disastrous.
5. It prevents individuals and teams from working together beyond the project, which detracts from knowledge acquisition, team performance, and employee engagement.
Traditionally, personnel are fixed to projects for the term of the project. How does this create problems?
The organization is unable to flex to the changing business needs without the overhead of re-budgeting and reallocating personnel, driving up Cost of Delay.
In SAFe, who is empowered to allocate budget to whatever personnel and resources make sense based on backlog and Roadmap content?
Value Stream Stakeholders including VSE and PPM.
What is Resource Pooling and how does it help in SAFe?
Because all the people on a Value Stream are in the same budget, they are all resources from the same pool of funding and can be moved around easily without difficult re-budgeting and delays.
What is the purpose of Solution and Product Management?
To ensure that the value streams are building the right thing.
What does Solution Management use to validate that the right thing is being built?
The Strategic Vision, Product Roadmap, Epics, WSJF values, etc.
How can solution managers validate that the effort is progressing as planned?
The ARTs are able to provide objective evaluations of the working systems through every product increment via the solution demo, and every two weeks in system demo.
What is the primary motivation of the Portfolio Kanban Board?
To ensure that Epics and Enablers are reasoned and analyzed prior to reaching the program increment boundary, are prioritized appropriately and have acceptance criteria.
Also, they can be tracked.
On the Epic Burn Up chart, what are the three measures tracked?
1. Initial Epic Estimate
2. Work Completed (Actual Story Points)
3. Cumulative work completed.
What is the Epic Progress Measure
A bar graph that displays each epic as a bar and indicates
1. Total current estimated story points for the epic's children stories
2. Dark green indicates points completed
3. Light green indicates points in progress
4. Vertical red line indicates original estimate
In the Enterprise Balance Scorecard, what are the four perspectives to measure performance for each portfolio?
2. Value Delivery
What is the Program Portfolio Management Self-Assessment?
A graph used by the PPM to continuously measure and improve their processes. It creates a RADAR chart that captures (Clockwise from top):
1. Program Portfolio Management team
2. Strategy and Investment Funding
4. Program Management
5. Portfolio Metrics
7. Value Streams
8. Portfolio Kanbans
What is the Value Stream Predictability Measure?
A diagram that measures overall predictability for teams on an ART by aggregating the individual team predictability by Product Increment. It compares predicted or forecast Objectives versus achieved Objectives, then averages across the teams.
What are the 8 metrics that go into the Value stream Performance metrics for Functionality?
PLANNED Features, Enablers, and Stories (AGGREGATED POINTS)
ACCEPTED Features, Enablers, and Stories (AGGREGATED POINTS)
This will also give program velocity and predictability measure.
What are the 5 metrics that go into the Value stream Performance metrics for Quality?
1.Unit Test Coverage %
3. Total Tests
4. % Automated
5. #NFR Tests
What does the Feature Progress Report track?
Status of features and enablers during PI execution to indicate which ones are on track or behind at any point in time.
What does the PI Burn-Down Chart indicate?
Displays the progress toward the program increment timebox to track work planned for a PI against the work that has been accepted.
What does a Cumulative Flow Diagram measure?
The amount of work in different stages of progress.
What are the 6 suggested states in the PI CFD?
How are Milestones in SAFe different than the ones in Phase Gate planning?
SAFe measures against empirical data and objective evidence. Instead of forecasting when Design should complete, it instead measures amounts of work completed by increments. Every milestone involves a portion of each step (requirements, design, development, testing, approval) rather than just one part.
What are the three primary Value Stream roles?
"VSE - Value Stream Engineer
Responsibility of VSE
Servant Leader that facilitates and guides the work of all ARTs and suppliers. Same as RTE
Responsibility of Solution Management
Is the main content authority guiding the value stream. Primarily responsible for Value Stream Backlog
Responsibility of Solution Arch/Eng
Technical responsibility for the overall architectural and engineering design of the solution
It is a final product delivered to the economic buyer.
Customers buy SOLUTIONS. Solutions are the complete software package that provide desirable business value.
A solution is uniquely associated with one Value Stream
Define Solution Context
Solution Context defines the environment in which the solution operates
Capabilities are related to?
Higher level behaviours of a solution that is maintained in Value Stream backlog
How are Capabilities are written?
Using a phrase, statement of benefits and acceptance criteria
How are capabilities included?
Capabilities are split into Features for implementation with in a single PI
What is Solution Intent
Single source of truth as to the intended and actual behaviour of the solution
Why is engaging the Customer important?
Engaging Customer into the process is a Critical aspect of development to ensure delivery of the right functionality by receiving frequent input on progress.
What is a Supplier in SaFe?
A third-party company that provides a part of a solution.
Lean-Agile suppliers are treated as another Agile Release Train, pariticipating in all VS ceremonies. VS agility is depended on Supplier agility
PRE/POST PI Planning participants are
Customers, VSE, Solution Mgmt, Solution Arch/Eng, VS stakeholders and select representatives from ARTs and Supplier
Align PM, Sys Arch and other ART stakeholders to a common vision
"Understand the resultant PI plan for the entire VS
Make adjustments if necessary and communicate to the trains"
"Results of previous PI
- Outcomes of Solution demo
- Roll-up of the Program Predictability Measurement to the VS"
Program PI Objectives from all ARTS
VS planning board
Unresolved program risks and confidence vote
"A set of features for every ART
Update to the ART Visions"
VS PI Objectives
Adjustment for ART plans if any
VS roadmap updates
Significance of Solution Demo
"Major event in the life of Solution
Entire VS demos fully integrated Solution
Progress reviewd by senior managers and imp stakeholders
Action and investment decisions based on SD"
What provides the best Objective evidence
Frequent Solution integration and testing, which is a joint responsibility of ART's and VS system teams
Advantage of Solution Demo
"Provides early validation and risk reduction
Increase actual velocity"
What are the parts involved in VS Inspect and Adapt workshop?
"1) Solution Demo
3) Problem-solving workshop"
Participants for VS I&A
System and solution Arch
Product and Solution Management
Portfolio stakeholders may also attend
The 4 SAFe connected Kanban systems are:
- Portfolio Kanban
- Value Stream Kanban
- Program Kanban
- Team Kanban"
What is a forcing function?
A forcing function is a commitment that forces a sequence of events to happen. Ex: scheduling a PI planning kick-starts the Product Increment planning and train implementation etc.
Name three benefits of scheduling the PI meeting.
"1. You create a timebox in which the preparation must happen.
2. You minimize the expansion of work during preparation, since not everything needs to be perfect.
3. Assures people that the Inspect and Adapt workshop creates a closed-loop system so that impediments can be made visible and addressed ASAP"
What are the 7 sections provided in the SAFE ART readiness workbook?
"1. Readiness Checklist
2. Team Summary
3. Team Roster
4. Program Roster
What is the suggested duration of the ART Quickstart method?
What happens during the first two days of the ART Quickstart method?
Monday and Tuesday: Train everyone at the same time
What happens during the third and fourth days of the ART Quickstart method?
Wednesday and Thursday: PI Planning to allign all teams to the common objective, get commitment and continue training during the planning.
What happens on the last day of the ART Quickstart method?
"Friday: SAFe Scrum Master Orientation in the morning and Product Owner orientation in the afternoon.
Tool training for both groups during the day. "
What are the 5 goals of the Quickstart 2 day training?
"1. Train people in Agile, Lean, Scrum and Kanban
2. Team building for the Agile Teams
3. Team building for the ART as team of teams
4. Prepare teams for PI planning
5. First chance to observe and guide teams in improving processes"
What are the 7 outcomes of the 2 day Quickstart training?
"1. Apply SAFe to scale Lean and Agile development to their enterprise
2. Know their team and its role in the ART
3. Know all the other teams on their train, their roles and dependencies
4. Plan iterations
5. Execute iterations and demo value
6. Plan Program Increments
7. Integrate and work other teams on the train"
What are the 6 values listed for the importance of the first PI Planing?
"1. First impression of SAFe
2. Generates a short-term Win (advertise your wins!)
3. Builds the ART as a team
4. Teaches teams about assuming responsibility for planning and delivery
5. Creates visibility into the program
6. Creates confidence in the commitment of Lean-Agile Leaders to the transformation"
Why are distributed planning meetings more difficult?
They require significantly more preparation and facilitation
What are the 4 strategies listed for distributed planning meetings?
"1. Have dedicated faciliator and tech support person at each location.
2. Test audio & video connectivity several times
3. Have a commmon understanding of how plans will be shared to everyone
4. Set up team-based audio/video communication for breakout sessions"
How does SAFe planning recommend handling Time Zone differences?
Compromise on time zone differences. Avoid making people stay up all night.
How can we ensure that everyone in the meetings gets value and no one is disruptive?
Form working agreements
If members of the same team are distributed, how should you handle time issues?
Establish more planning overlap time, have more intra- and inter-team checkpoints, and consider the non-ideal situation of concurrent planning since someone may be up all night
How is planning impacted when the company has whole teams distributed, and what strategies are there?
"1. Team planning is easier than when the teams are split, however dependency management with other component teams is complex.
2. Need to have more inter-team checkpoints and synchronization
3. Leverage a centralized program board"
What is recommended for PI planning when handling a large time zone difference?
Provide a 2.5-day split agenda. (12.29)
How do you create a successful train?
1. Train SPCs on and around the train 2. Train leadership, management, execs, and stakeholders 3. Train Agile Teams and launch Agile Train 4. Deliver results: Coach the train. Train specialist roles
How do you successfully plan and launch the next trains? 7 things...
"1. Leverage wins to launch more trains and scale
2. Launch all trains in a Value Stream
3. Move to the next Value Stream
4. Celebrate short-term wins, but don't declare victory too soon!
6. Keep urgency high
7. Don't forget to support existing trains as you scale
What kind of value stream does smaller business have?
Single-ART Value Streams, Value Stream Level not needed (3-Level SAFe)
What kind of value stream does larger business have?
Multiple Value Streams, some with multiple ARTs; full Solution context needed (4-Level SAFe)
What kind of value stream does largest business have?
Multiple SAFe portfolios, some larger, some smaller (multiple instances of 3- and 4- Level SAFe)
What do you look for in a Value Stream constructs 3-level SAFe?
"Economic Framework→RTE, System Arch/Eng, Product Mgmt
Solution Intent (Variable/Fixed)→Customer
In which level are Value Streams represented and funded?
The SAFe Portfolio Level
What is the Value Stream Coordination in relation to SAFe portfolio?
"The SAFe Portfolio Level is where Value Streams are represented and funded.
Often these Solutions require coordinating dependencies across Value Streams.
Coordination describes the aspects needed to enable these Capabilities on a sustainable basis.
Offering a set of Solutions and services that cannot be matched by anyone provides a key differentiator in the market and provides a barrier to entry for competitors"
What are the 5 primary aspects of coordination?
"1. Cadence and synchronization
2. Injection of new Portfolio Level Epic and Enablers
3. Program/content management and enterprise architecture
4. Portfolio Roadmap
5. Deployment and release"
How do you customize a Lean-Agile Portfolio organization and structure?
Customize your portfolio with the constructs you need from the SPANNING PALETTE by identifying the DevOps, System Team, Release Management, Shared Services, Vision, Roadmaps, Releases and User Experience.
What are 3 the responsibilities of Program Portfolio Management (PPM)?
"1. Allocate and assure funding to strategy
2. Drive, assist or support program execution
3. Close the loop on funding and program execution, measures and reporting necessary compliance"
How do you identify a the 7 typical behaviors of the traditional mindset
"1. Centralized planning and control
2. Plan out a full year of projects
3. Maximize utilization
5. Just ""Get it done!"" mentality
6. Development in order-taker mentality
7.Control through data and milestones"
How would you describe a Lean- Agile approach compared to the traditional approach? 7 Differences
"1. Decentralized decision-making compared to traditional method of Centralized control
2. Demand management, continuous value flow compared to the traditional approach of project overload
3. Lightweight, epic-only business cases compared to the traditional approach of Detailed project plans
4.Decentralized, rolling-wave planning compared to the traditional approach of centralized annual planning
5.Agile estimating and planning compared to the traditional approach of work breakdown structure
6.Lean-Agile budgeting and self-managing Agile Release Trains compared to the traditional approach of project-based funding and control
7. Objective, fact-based measures and milestones compared to the traditional approach of waterfall milestones"
What are the 6 major roles of the Agile PMO?
"1. Leads the Lean-Agile transformation
2. Applies objective Milestones
3. Leads the move to Lean-Agile Budgeting
4.Coaches ARTs in effective practices
5.Fosters Agile contracts
6.Develops Lean models for Supplier and Customer partnerships"
What 3 mindset changes can anchor Agile new approaches as far as culture is concern?
"1. Culture comes last, not first
2. It's important to point out the connection between successes and the new ways of working
3. Promotion considerations need to reflect the new values"
What are the values to consider for a greater business result?
4.Time to market
What is the best way to write your case study?
"Share your transformation success story
Provide objective measures for success
Share the good, the bad, and the ugly"
Give examples of measuring success in a Lean Program Portfolio metrics (Benefit, Expected result, Metric used)
"1. Benefit -ex. Employee engagement, customer satisfaction, productivity, Agility, Time to market, Quality, Partner health
2.Expected Result- ex. Improved employee satisfaction; lower turnover, Improved Net Promoter Score, Reduced average feature cycle time, Continuous improvement in team and program measures, more frequent releases, Reduced defect counts and support call volume, improving ecosystem relationships
3. Metric used-ex. Employee survey; HR statistics, Net Promoter Score survey, Feature cycle time, Team, program, and portfolio self-assessments; predictability measure, Number of releases per year, Defect data and support call volume, Partner and vendor Surveys"
What are the 7 major steps that define the Role of SPC?
SPCs are knowledge change agents. Many are typically required.
1. Communicate the transformation need and vision
2. Form the transformation team
3. Teach leaders and other stakeholders
4. Train the teams and launch ARTs.
5. Coach ARTs
6. Scale wins to Value Stream and Portfolio
7. Connect the dots in the enterprise
What is one of the most important influences an SPC can have on the enterprise?
SPCs can help to establish a SENSE OF URGENCY
What are the 4 key steps to reach leadership tipping point?
1. Setting the context to the leaders
2. Aim at building the knowledge
3. PI planning simulation
4. Provide Leadership Modules
What is MBSE and what is its benefit?
Model Based Systems Engineering.
Models facilitate early learning by testing and validating system characteristics, properties and behaviors early, enabling early feedback on design decisions.
What is the Solution Intent?
All the information, from Vision, documentation, and code base, that describe what the intent and purpose of the solution is intended to be.
"A pool of data and information that is used to keep an enterprise on track when they are trying to create a large solution. It is the basic understanding of the current and evolving requirements design and intent of the solution being constructed."
What are the 3 types of information contained within the Solution intent?
1, Future and Current information around Specifications (capabilities, features, stories, NFRs, standards),
2. Design (models, design decisions, Trade Studies), and
3. Tests (Functional and unit testes, system and NFR tests)
What is the beginning point of a Solution Intent?
A VISION that describes at a high level the purpose and key capabilities of the intended solution, along with critical nonfunctional requirements.
When does real, tangible development value occur?
When the end users are successfully operating the solution in their environment.
For end users to be able to operate a solution it requires deployment to production, which implies involvement of which technical group?
Dev Ops supports what technical need?
Tighter integration of development and deployment operations.
Dev Ops needs to be part of the trains for multi-ART value streams. True or False
Who is included in DevOps?
1. System administrators
2. database administrators
3. operational engineers
4. network and storage engineers
What are the 6 practices recommended for building the deployment pipeline?
1. Build and maintain a production equivalent staging environment
2. Maintain development and test environments to better match production
3. Deploy to Staging every iteration, deploy to production frequently
4. Put everything under version control
5. Start creating the ability to automatically build environments
6. Automate the actual deployment process
What is a System Team?
A special agile team on the ART or VS that is typically chartered to provide assistance in building and using the agile development environment infrastructure as well as integrating assets from agile teams, performing end to end solution testing.
What are the three typical patterns for System teams in ARTs?
System team per ART
System team only at the Value Stream level
System teams at both levels
What 4 things can Systems Teams do to help increase ART Velocity?
1. Make Integration easier by creating and maintaining infrastructure, including CI, automated builds, and automated build verification testing.
2. Support Demos by creating platforms and environments for solution demonstration.
3. Make Deployment easier by facilitating automated deployment.
4. Facilitate the technical aspects of collaboration with third parties, such as data or service providers, hosting facilities etc.
System Teams may be required to help in COMPLEX SOLUTIONS in what other 5 ways?
1. PI planning (and Pre- and Post-), for integration and test capabilities and features
2. Branching Management models.
3. Solution-level integration scripts or integrate manually where needed.
4. Help defining inter-component interfaces.
5. Attend other teams' stand ups in support of daily activities.
In what 7 ways can System Teams perform automated testing responsibilities?
1. Create new automated test scenarios
2. Extend test scenarios to larger data sets
3. Organize test cases designed by individual teams into ordered suites
4. Perform manual testing and run automated tests for new features and stories
5. Prioritize time-consuming tests, refactor, and run reduced test suites where applicable
6. Assist teams in creating reduced test suites that they themselves can run
7. Test solution performance against NFRs and assist in identifying system shortfalls and bottlenecks.
Why is the System Team often directly involved in supporting the release.
Because they have unique skills and purview with respect to the evolving team, and often have seen the solution across multiple iterations, understand what it is and what it does.
What 6 types of groups or individuals are in Shared Services?
1. Security specialists
2. Information architects
4. Technical writers
5. Quality assurance
6. IT operations personnel
What is user experience?
The user's perception of a system's aspects, including ease of use, utility and efficiency of man-machine interface.
Why are one or more UX engineers typically dedicated at the ART level instead of the team?
To provide a consistent user experience across the components and systems of the larger experience.
What is the simplest formula to calculate WSJF?
Cost of Delay divided by Job Duration
What does WSJF stand for?
Weighted Shortest Job First
What are the 3 components for calculating Cost of Delay?
1. Business Value +
2. Time Criticality +
3. Risk Reduction/Opportunity Enablement
What is a vision?
It is a statement that provides longer term context for what needs to be built. How will the solution solve customer problems, how it will differentiate us, what is the future context our solution will provide, and our current business in context.
How does having a clear Vision impact team behavior?
Teams start thinking about how to apply their strengths in order to get there
What is a solution vision?
Communicates strategic intent. Where are we headed, what problem does it solve, what features and benefits does it provide, for whom does it provide them?
What are common formats of a vision?
"Rolling Wave Briefings
Preliminary Data Sheet
Draft Press Release"
What is a roadmap?
A graphic plan that guides delivery of features over time (usually for 3 PIs).
When is a team committed to a Product Increment?
The team is committed to the features in the current PI.
What is forecasting?
The projected features teams hope to complete in upcoming PIs.
What would you find in a forecast?
Upcoming features, Milestones.
When, if ever, is a roadmap a queue?
The current PI in the roadmap is committed and can be considered a queue.
How many PIs are advised for forecasting in a roadmap?
3 Pis, or about 30 weeks.
What is a feature?
Services that fulfill user needs, expressed as a phrase, "value" is expressed in terms of benefits, identified prioritized and estimated and maintained in the backlog.
How is Value expressed in SAFe?
Value is expressed in terms of benefits
What is the largest solution object that a team should be able to complete in a PI?
What is the order of decomposition for Feature, Capability, Epic, and Story?
Capability, Epic, Feature then story
What is the value of a feature?
Feature value describes business benefits
What should features always contain?
Features should always contain benefits and acceptance criteria
Feature should reflect both ___________ and ______________ ?
A feature should always reflect both Functional and non-functional requirements
In a flow system, what is key to economic outcomes?
Job sequencing is key to economic outcomes in a flow system
What is the calculation that helps us determine how we give preference to jobs?
Give preference to jobs with SHORTER duration and HIGHER CoD using WSJF.
Feature 1. CoD=10, Duration =1 So WSJF is 10/1= 10.
Feature 2. CoD=1, Duration = 10, so WSJF is 1/10= 0.1
Feature 1 has a higher WSJF, start there.
What is the Weighted Shortest Job First (WSJF) formula?
What can you use as a proxy for duration in the WSJF formula?
Job Size can be used as a proxy for duration in WSJF
Who are the 4 WSJF stakeholders?
1. Business Owners
2. Product Managers
3. Product Owners
4. System Architects
What is the formula for WSJF with relative estimating?
Which job provides the greatest economic benefit?
The job with the highest WSJF provides the greatest economic benefit.
What is RR?
What is OE?
Opportunity Enablement Value
The foundation of Lean is:
What are the 3 steps in implementing SAFe 1-2-3?
1.Train Lean-Agile change agents
2.Train Executives, Managers, Leaders
3.Train teams and launch trains
What 3 groups should be trained to build a powerful coalition for change?
1.Develop SPC change agents
2.Executive leadership leads the change
3.Develop Lean-Agile leaders
What are the 3 different Leadership styles?
1.Leader as expert
2.Leader as conductor
3.Leader as developer
When can "Leader as expert" be effective?
Can be effective when the manager has greater knowledge than direct reports
When can "Leader as conductor" be effective?
Can be effective when coordination is a prerequisite for maximum performance
When can "Leader as developer of people" be effective?
This approach escapes the trap with a post-heroic, lean leadership style
In order to create a safe environment of mutual influence, leaders encourage their direct reports to do what 5 things together?
1.To disagree where appropriate
2.To advocate for the positions they believe in
3.To push for their own needs
4.To enter into joint problem solving
5.To negotiate, compromise, agree, commit
Stretch objectives provide what value to a team's plan?
They provide a reliability guard rail.
They are planned and aren't extra things to do.
Are Stretch Objectives considered part of the commitment in a PI?
No, they are functionality the team hopes to achieve if everything goes smoothly, but aren't committed scope.
Why does SAFe recommend a second Team Breakout session on Day 2?
To give the team time to rest and think about the previous day's plan after a good nights sleep.
What do Business Owners do during the Day 2 team breakout?
Circulate and assign business value to PI Objectives from Low to High
What is a Program PI Objective?
The synthesis of each team's PI Objectives
Per D. Reinersten, "If you only quantify one thing, quantify..." what?
Cost of Delay
What is the maximum Iteration Planning time?
Four hours should be the maximum. Two per week.
What should be the result of a Iteration Planning meeting?
Backlog of the team's commitment
What is the Reciprocal agreement between Business and Teams at the sprint level?
Teams commit to delivering the specific value to which they have agreed.
Business commits to leaving priorities unchanged during the iteration.
What are the 4 reasons SAFe says Quality must be "built-in"
You can't scale lousy code. So Building Quality In:
1. Ensures that every increment reflects quality standards
2. Is required for high, sustainable dev velocity
3. Software quality practices include XP inspired techniques such as CI, Test-First, Refactoring, Pair-Work, Collective Ownership and more
4. Hardware quality is supported by exploratory, early iterations, frequent system level integration, design verification, MBSE and Set-Based design
Describe what is meant by "Emergent Design"
Teams grow the system design as user stories require
Describe what is meant by "Intentional Architecture"
System and Solution architects must be able to see far enough into the future to understand how to architect the system solution in an iterative manner that fosters team alignment and defines the Architectural Runway.
What is the Architectural Runway?
This is software code, hardware components etc that technically enable near-term business features.
As part of the notion of intentional architecture, the Architects anticipate the system functionality that will be needed in upcoming PIs and plan for the teams to create the functionality as Enabler Features/stories in current PI so they will be ready just in time.
What is continuous integration?
Teams take the responsibility of integrating their own assets on a frequent (daily, weekly) manner and leave as little as possible to system teams.
Why does SAFe encourage Feature Toggling?
This allows teams to continuously integrate and avoid complex version controls through physical branching of software, by turning on and off new features when they are ready.
What is meant by encouraging "development by intention" where there are inter-team dependencies?
Teams should define their interfaces and integrate first, then add functionality afterward.
(Otherwise, teams spend a great deal of time working on their own functionality and postpone trying to integrate; thus problems are discovered with integration too late)
What happens if we delay automation?
Velocity gets bottlenecked, quality is speculative and scaling is impossible.
When should automation tests be implemented with relation to the code they support?
During the same iteration.
What teams should automate the tests?
The same team that builds the functionality.
Considering automated tests, what is the real indicator of progress?
Passing, vs "not yet passing" and "broken" automation tests.
What is the real purpose of the Team Iteration Demo?
To provide the true measure of progress by showing working software.
When does preparation for the Iteration Demo start?
During Iteration Planning
What should a team demo during the Iteration Demo?
Every story, spike, refactor, and NFR
Who attends the Team Iteration Demo?
Team and stakeholders.
What is Part 1 of the Iteration Retrospective?
Quantitative review: Did the team meet goals? Collect and review agreed-upon iteration metrics.
What is Part 2 of the Iteration Retrospective?
Qualitative: What went well? what didn't go well? what can we do better? How are our processes? How are we working together?
What benefit do the Program Events provide for the train?
They create a closed-loop system to keep the train on track.
What do Strategic Themes do?
Connect each SAFe Portfolio to the Enterprise business strategy.
ARTs are optimized for how many team members?
50 to 125
What is a value stream?
It identifies how value flows and the individuals and features that produce the value.
What is the difference between Portfolio Epics and Program Epics?
Portfolio Epics cut across trains.
Program Epics can be implemented on a single train.
What are Business Epics?
These are customer-facing
What are Enabler Epics?
These are technical epics that are part of the Architectural Runway and are identified to provide the just-in-time functionality that will enable solutions to address business needs.
Where (in what space) are Epics developed and analyzed?
In the Portfolio Kanban System.
What is the function of the Portfolio Kanban system?
To manage the flow of Epics
What are the 6 benefits of the Portfolio Kanban System?
1. Makes largest business initiatives visible
2. Brings structure to analysis and decision making
3. Provides WIP limits to ensure the teams analyze responsibly
4. Prevents unrealistic expectations
5. Helps drive collaboration amongst key stakeholders
6. Provides a transparent and quantitative basis for economic decision making.
What are the 6 benefits of the Lightweight Epic Business Case?
1. Just the right amount of analysis
2. Avoid over-specificity
3. Understand ROI
4. Understand Implementation impact
5. Develop incremental implementation strategy
6. Gain approval
What is contained in the Portfolio Backlog?
Epics approved for implementation
In what way are Portfolio Backlog epics sized?
Aggregated story points
When there are changes in business need, how does Financial Governance react?
Adjust budgets dynamically across value streams to where it is needed.
During the Portfolio Kanban analysis stage, into what are Epics broken down?
How are potential features sized/estimated during the Portfolio Kanban analysis stage?
Estimated story points.
What is done with the story points for potential features after they are sized ?
Their points are summed (aggregated) to the parent Epic.
Thus: If F1=50 + F2=30 + F3=20 then Epic = 100 points
How are Capabilities described with regards to Product Increment?
Must be structured to fit within a single PI.
Into what are capabilities split for implementation?
In what way can suppliers play a key--and sometimes limiting--role in a Solution development agility?
The overall value stream's agility is dependent upon suppliers' agility.
How does SAFe propose treating Lean-Agile suppliers?
As another ART
What are the FOUR connected Kanban systems in SAFe?
1. Portfolio Kanban
2. Value Stream Kanban
3. Program Kanban
4. Team Kanban
Why is it crucial for leadership to be part of successful Lean-Agile Transformations?
Executives who are not part of the initiative often stall it.
What is the role of SPCs with regards to Leadership and Transformations?
SPCs must educate and persuade leaders and build the case for SAFe.
What are the 4 reasons SAFe is organized around Value?
1. Fewer handoffs and faster value delivery
2. Easier to build in quality
3. Built-in alignment between business and software development
4. Optimizing the system as a whole
What are the two types of Value Streams?
1. Operational Value Stream
2. Development Value Stream
What are the three steps in identifying Value Streams?
1. Identify an operational value stream
2. Identify the supporting target systems
3. Identify the development value streams and teams that work on those systems
After identifying the development value streams, what is the next step?
Determine how to organize the teams/people into ARTs.
What are the 4 best patterns for splitting large value streams into ARTs?
1. By product, solution or service.
2. By customer or market segment
3. By solution feature areas
4. By subsets of value (value stream segments)
What are the "other" three patterns that can be used for splitting value streams into arts?
1. By technology such as subsystems, applications components or platforms.
2. By source of funding
3. By location or geography.
How are Capabilities optimized in ARTs?
Capabilities are optimized for speed.
They are likely to require cross-train architectural governance.
How are subsystems optimized in ARTs?
Subsystems are optimized for robustness.
These trains may require a lot of content organization.
There may be many dependencies and lots of WIP for any new feature.
Why is launching the first ART crucial?
It builds a framework to allow employees to apply the vision to meaningful change.
Why is training leaders so important for launching ARTs?
It helps them create the mindset they need to empower employees for action.
What are the 4 questions to ask to help you identify Operational Value Stream?
"1. What is the Enterprise selling?
2. How do the external customers perceive the flow of value?
3. What are the triggers that cause value to be create?
4. What internal business processes does a solution enable? "
What is Dunbar's number?
A suggested cognitive limit to the number of people whom one can maintain stable social relationships
What does Dunbar's number suggest about ideal ART size?
Beyond 125 members on an ART, logistics and inter-team dependencies are more difficult. Alignment and governance are harder to achieve.
What's an Agile Release Train
"a) Virtual Organization of 5-12 teams (50-125+ individuals) that plans, commits and executes together
b) Aligned to a common vision via single Program Backlog
c) Operates under Architectural and UX Guidance
d) Frequently produces valuable and evaluable system level solutions
e) Synchronized iterations and PIs"
What's a Program Increment (PI)
PI is a fixed time box; default is 10 weeks
When do we consider System is Sprinting
"a) System is synchronized to assure delivery via System demos
b) Every iteration from each team will be continously integrated and demonstrated throughout PI"
What are the typical management challenges to connect SILOs
"a) Optimized vertical communication
b) Friction across SILOs
c) Location via function
d) Political boundaries between functions
e) Typical Functions: Business, System Engineering, Hardware, Software, Test & QA"
What are typical activities of a cross functional Agile team
"a) Cross functional, self organizing entities that can define, build and test a feature or component
b) Optimized for communication of Delivery of value
c) Delivery value every two weeks or early"
Define roles/team that power the Agile Release Train
"a) Scrum Master - Runs team meetings, drives agile behaviour. Removes impediments, protects team from outside influence, Attend Scrum of Scrums
b) Product Owner - Defines and accepts stories, Acts as customer to developer questions, Works with product management to plan PIs
c) Agile team - Create and define user stories and acceptance criteria, Define/Build/Test/Deliver Stories, Develop and commit to Team PI objectives and iteration plans"
What are the approaches in organizing teams around value
"a) Maximize velocity by minimizing dependencies and hand offs, while sustaining architectural robustness and system qualities
b) Team can be organized around Features or components
c) Less desirable approaches are based on architectural layer (platform, middleware, UI, DB, business logic etc.) Other - programming language, spoken language, technology, location etc."
4 Rules for forming a Large program
"a) Lean toward Feature teams: Fastest Delivery, Minimize Dependencies, Developing Tech Skills
b) Use component teams when: High reuse, high technical specialization, Critical NFRs
c) Create each component as a potentially replaceable part of the system, with well defined interfaces
d) Avoid organizing around architectural layers and other, as they provide team coupling and don't provide a technical separation of concerns"
What are the other ART roles apart from SM, PO and team
"a) RTE acting as Chief Scrum Master
b) PM - owns, defines and prioritizes program backlog
c) System Architect-Engineering provides architectural guidance and technical enablement to the teams
d) System team provides process and tools to integrate and evaluate assets early and often
e) Business owners are the key stake holders on ART"
How do PM/PO steer the train
"a) PM owns program backlog
b) PO owns team backlog
c) Team implements value"
PI Planning Basics
"a) Cadence based PI planning meetings are the pace maker of the Agile Enterprise
b) Two days every 8-12 weeks (10 week typical)
c) Everyone attends in person if at all possible
d) PM owns feauture priorities
e) Dev teams own story planning and high level estimates
f) Architects/Engineering and UX work as intermediaries for governance, interfaces and dependencies"
PI Planning Process
"a) Input: Vision & Top 10 features
b) PI planning
c) Output: Team, Program PI objectives and Program board"
Setting PI planning cadence
"a) Program Level Calendar: PI Planning, Demos, I&A workshops
b) Team Level Calendar: Iteration planning meeting, team demos, Iteration Retrospectives"
How does a team aligns mission with PI objective
a) Team commits to business summaries of what each team intends to deliver in upcoming PI which can be an aggregation of a set of features, milestone like a trade show, Enabler feature needed to support implementation, a major refactoring etc.
Feature break down to stories
"a) Features are decomposed into stories by the teams on the train
b) Teams on train collaborate to deliver features
c) Features are implemented incrementally via user stories
d) Teams demonstrate working increments of features by delivering stories on a regular cadence
e) Features fit in one PI for one ART
f) Stories fit one iteration for one team"
"a) Truly all things. All work team undertakes should be there in backlog
b) Represents opportunities not commitments
c) Can be estimated but estimates do not imply committed delivery
d) Single owner - team's PO who is also part of larger PO/PM team
e) Largely driven by program priorities"
"a) Backlog contains user stories
b) Describe intended system behaviour
c) Small increments of value that can be developed in days
d) Relatively easy to estimate
e) Elaborated JIT"
Enabler stories support value
"a) Enabler stories can represent - Exploration, Architecture, Infrastructure etc.
b) Enabler stories are demonstrated like any other story"
"a) SP is singular number representing - volume, complexity, knowledge and uncertainty
b) SP is relative not connected to any UOM
c) 8 point story should be 4x longer than a 2 point story at least within a team"
"a) Combines Expert opinion, analogy and disaggregation for quick and reliable estimates
b) All team members to participate"
What are the 6 behavioral advantages of SAFe's Agile Team of Teams?
1. Self-Organizing, self-managing
2. Delivers working, tested full system increments every two weeks.
3. Operates with Vision, architecture and UX guidance
4. Common iteration lengths and estimating
5. Face to face planning
Value delivery via Features and benefits
What are the 5 reasons Lean gives for respecting people and culture? .
People do all the work.
Your customer is whomever consumes your work.
Build Long-term partnerships based on trust.
Cultural change comes last, not first.
To change culture, you have to change the organization.
What are the 6 ways Lean focuses on Flow?
1. Optimize continuous and sustainable throughput of value.
2. Avoid Start-Stop-Start project delays.
3. Build quality in, flow depends on it
4. Understand, exploit and manage variability
5. Integrate frequently
6. Informed decision making via fast feedback
What 5 approaches are suggested by Lean to foster innovation?
1. Producers innovate; customers validate
2. Get out of the office (Gemba)
3. Provide time and space for innovation
4. Apply innovation accounting
5. Pivot without mercy or guilt
What are the 5 approaches suggested by Lean for Relentless Improvement?
1. A constant sense of danger
2. Optimize the whole
3. Consider the facts carefully, then act quickly
4. Apply lean tools to identify and address root causes
5. Reflect at key milestones, identify and address shortcomings.
What are the 6 approaches Lean suggests for Leadership?
1. Lead the change
2. Know the way; emphasize life-long learning
3. Develop people
4. Inspire and align with mission; minimize constraints
5. Decentralize decision-making
6. Unlock the intrinsic motivation of knowledge workers
What are the 5 things listed for Systems Thinking?
1. Complex systems development requires disciplined, systematic systems thinking
2. Optimize the whole, not a component
3. The value of a system passes through its interconnections
4. A system can evolve no faster than its slowest integration point.
5. Understand and optimize the full Value stream
Because development occurs in an uncertain world, what 4 approaches are suggested?
1. You can't possibly know everything at the start.
2. Requirements must be flexible and make economic design choices
3. Designs must be flexible to support changing requirements
4. Preservation of options improves economic results
For finding optimum batch size, SAFe discusses the U-curve optimization. What are the three considerations of costs?
1. Total costs are the sum of the HOLDING costs and the TRANSACTION costs.
2. Higher transaction costs shift optimize batch size higher
3. Higher holding costs shift batch size lower.
When considering reduction of optimum batch size, what impact is realized by reducing transaction costs?
Reducing transaction costs reduces total costs and shifts the optimum batch size lower.
What are the 4 benefits of Cadence?
1. Transforms unpredictable events into predictable events
2. Makes waiting times predictable
3. Facilitates planning; provides more efficient use of resources
4. Delivering on cadence requires scope of capacity margin
What are the 5 benefits of synchronization?
1. Synchronization causes multiple events to happen at the same time.
2. Sync events facilitate cross-functional tradeoffs of people and scope
3. Periodic resynchronization limits variance to a single time interval
4. Regular integration provides high fidelity tests and objective assessments
5. To work effectively, design cycles must be synchronized.
What impact does a planning cadence have on variability?
Planning cadence limits variation to a single interval. Hence, variation is discovered at demos either at the iteration or PI level.
How many members are suggested by SAFe to a team?
5 to 9 members
What are the 3 scrum roles suggested by SAFe?
How are teams best organized? How to best organize a team?
1. Organize for the larger purpose: minimize dependencies and hand-offs.
2. Teams can be organized around Features or Components
3. Less desirable is by architectural layer or language etc.
PI Planning Day 1 agenda:
1. Business Context
2. Product Solution Vision
3. Arch. Vision and Dev Practices
4. Planning Context/ Lunch
5. Team Breakouts
6. Draft Plan review
7. management review and problem solving
PI Planning Day 2 agenda
1. Planning adjustments
2. Team Breakouts
3. Final Plan review and lunch
4. Program Risks
5. PI Confidence vote
6. Plan rework if necessary
Planning retrospective and moving forward.
Through what meeting does the Program coordinate dependencies?
What does the Scrum of Scrums do?
1. Provides visibility into progress and impediments.
Facilitated by the RTE.
SMs and other members participate.
Weekly or more frequently. 30-60 minutes
What does the PO Sync do?
Provides visibility into progress, scope and priority adjustments.
Facilitated by the RTE or PM.
PMs, POs and other stakeholders participate.
Weekly, 30-60 minutes
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Implementing SAFE 4.0 with SAFe Program Consultant…
SAFe SPC 4.5 - Chapter 01 - Introducing…
SAFe SPC Section 12 - Launching an ART
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Scaled Agile Study guide
SAFe 4 Practitioner(4.5)
SAFe 4 Practitioner(4.5)